Latin Phrase-Book, by Carl Meissner and Henry William Auden (searchable)

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Latin Phrase-Book, by C. Meissner and H.W. Auden

LatinEnglish
rerum or mundi universitasthe universe
rerum natura or simply naturacreation; nature
haec omnia, quae videmusthe visible world
totius mundi convenientia et consensusthe perfect harmony of the universe
deus mundum aedificavit, fabricatus est, effecit (not creavit)God made the world
deus est mundi procreator (not creator), aedificator, fabricator, opifex rerumGod is the Creator of the world
elementa; initia or principia rerumthe elements
elementa et tamquam semina rerumthe elements and first beginnings
nutus et pondus or simply nutus (ῥοπή)gravity
orbis terrae, terrarumthe earth; the globe
(terra) continensthe continent
terra (regio) mediterraneaan inland region; the interior
interior Asia; interiora Asiaethe interior of Asia
sinus urbis (Sall. Cat. 52. 35)the heart of the city
in ipsam or intimam Graeciam penetrareto penetrate into the heart of Greece
terra effert (more rarely fert, but not profert) frugesthe earth brings forth fruit, crops
terra fundit frugesthe earth brings forth fruit abundantly
animata (animalia) inanimaque (not inanimata)animate and inanimate nature
ea, quae terra gignitthe vegetable kingdom
ea, quae e terra gignunturthe vegetable kingdom
ea, quae a terra stirpibus continenturthe vegetable kingdom
ea quorum stirpes terra continentur (N. D. 2. 10. 26)the vegetable kingdom
arbores stirpesque, herbae stirpesque (De Fin. 5. 11. 33)the vegetable kingdom
radices agere (De Off. 2. 12. 73)to take root
gemmas agereto bud, blossom
gemmae proveniuntthe trees are budding
arbores frondescuntthe trees are coming into leaf
rami late diffundunturthe twigs are shooting out, spreading
montes vestiti silviswooded hills
summus monsthe top of a mountain
culmina Alpiumthe summits of the Alps
sub radicibus montis, in infimo monte, sub monteat the foot of the mountain
superare Alpes, Pyrenaeum, Apenninum(both always in the sing.)to cross the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines
altissimis montibus undique continerito be shut in on all sides by very high mountains
prospectus est ad aliquidone has a view over...; one is able to see as far as..
collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)a gentle ascent
ad extremum tumulumon the edge of the hill
loca edita, superioraheights, high ground
loca aspera et montuosa (Planc. 9. 22)rough and hilly ground
loca plana or simply planalevel country; plains
saxa praeruptasteep rocks
loca incultauncultivated districts
loca deserta (opp. frequentia)deserts
loca amoena, amoenitas locorumpleasant districts; charming surroundings
summa aquathe surface of the water
ex aqua exstareto stand out of the water
aqua est umbilīco tenusthe water reaches to the waist
aqua pectus aequat, superatthe water is up to, is above, the chest
(se) ex aqua emergereto come to the surface
aquam ex flumine derivareto draw off water from a river
aquam ducere per hortumto bring a stream of water through the garden
aquae ductus (plur. aquarum ductus)a conduit; an aqueduct
agros irrigareto irrigate fields
aqua viva, profluens (opp. stagnum)running water
aqua iugis, perennisa perpetual spring
frigidā, calidā lavari (Plin. Ep. 3. 5. 11)to take a cold, warm, bath
aquae, aquarum inopsill-watered
fluctuare or fluctuaridriven by the waves
fluctibus iactaritossed hither and thither by the waves
fluctibus (undis) obrui,submergito be engulfed
gurgitibus hauririto be drowned in the eddies
flumen citatum ferturthe rivers flows with a rapid current
flumen imbribus auctuma river swollen by the rain
flumen super ripas effunditurthe river is over its banks, is in flood
flumen extra ripas diffluitthe river is over its banks, is in flood
flumen agros inundatthe river floods the fields
flumen vado transireto wade across, to ford a river
flumine secundowith the stream; downstream
flumine adversoagainst the stream; upstream
Rhenus oritur or profluit ex Alpibusthe Rhine rises in the Alps
accessus et recessus aestuumebb and flow (of tide)
decessus aestusthe ebb
aestus maritimi mutuo accedentes et recedentes (N. D. 2. 53. 132)the alternation of tides
aestus ex alto se incitat (B. G. 3.12)the tide is coming in
aestu rursus minuentewhen the tide begins to go down
mare ventorum vi agitatur et turbaturthere is a storm at sea
mare medium or internumthe Mediterranean Sea
ignem facere, accendereto light, make a fire
ignem tectis inferre, subicereto set fire to houses
ignem concipere, comprehendereto take fire
ignem excitare (pro Mur. 25. 51)to make up, stir up a fire
ignem alereto keep up a fire
accendere, incendere aedificiato set buildings on fire
inflammare urbemto set fire to a city
flammis corripito be devoured by the flames
incendio flagrare, or simply conflagrare, ardere (Liv. 30. 7)to be on fire, in flames
incendio deleri, absūmito be burned to ashes
igni cremari, necarito perish in the flames
ignem conclamareto raise an alarm of fire
ventus ignem distulit (B. G. 5. 43)the wind spread the conflagration
aer terrae circumiectus or circumfususthe atmosphere
aer qui est terrae proximusthe atmosphere
suspicere(in) caelumto raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky
oculos tollere, attollere ad caelumto raise the eyes to heaven; to look up to the sky
sub divoin the open air
orbis finiens (Div. 2. 44. 92)the horizon
caelum or natura caeliclimate
caelum salūbre, salubritas caeli (opp. grave, gravitas)healthy climate
caeli temperatiotemperate climate
aer calore et frigore temperatustemperate climate
caeli asperitasrough climate
caeli varietasvariable climate
caelestia(1) the heavenly bodies, (2) celestial phenomena
sol oritur, occiditthe sun rises, sets
ortus, occasus solissunrise; sunset
sol(luna) deficit, obscuraturthe sun, moon, is eclipsed
solis defectioan eclipse of the sun
luna crescit; decrescit, senescitthe moon waxes, wanes
motus stellarum constantes et ratithe regular courses of the stars
cursum conficere in caeloto run its course in the sky
caelum astris distinctum et ornatumthe star-lit sky; the firmament
nox sideribus illustrisa star-light night
stellae errantes, vagaethe planets
stellae inerrantes (N. D. 2. 21. 54)the fixed stars
sidera certis locis infixathe fixed stars
orbis lacteusthe milky way
orbis signiferthe zodiac
vertex caeli, axis caeli, cardo caelithe pole
orbis, pars (terrae), cingulusa zone
orbis mediusthe temperate zone
vocis imago, or simply imagoan echo
saxa voci respondent or resonantthe rocks re-echo
ventus remittit (opp. increbrescit)the wind is falling
ventus cadit, cessatthe wind dies down, ceases
ventis secundis, adversis utito have favourable, contrary, winds
ventus se vertit in Africumthe wind is turning to the south-west
tempestas cooritura storm is rising
imber tenet (Liv. 23. 44. 6)the rain continues
imbres repente effusia sudden shower
tempestatem idoneam, bonam nanciscito meet with good weather
calor se frangit (opp. increscit)the heat is abating
sol ardet, uritthe sun burns, scorches
ardore solis torrerito be dried up by the sun's heat
tanta vis frigoris insecuta est, utthe frost set in so severely that..
frigore (gelu) rigere, torpereto be numb with cold
frigore conficito freeze to death
aestus et frigoris patientem esseto be able to bear heat and cold
tempestas cum magno fragore (caeli) tonitribusque (Liv. 1. 16)a storm accompanied by heavy claps of thunder
caelum tonitru contremitthe heavens are shaken by the thunder
fulmina micantthe lightning flashes
fulmen locum tetigitthe lightning has struck somewhere
fulmine tangi, icito be struck by lightning
de caelo tangi, percutito be struck by lightning
fulmine ictusstruck by lightning
eruptiones ignium Aetnaeoruman eruption of Etna
Vesuvius evomit (more strongly eructat) ignesVesuvius is discharging flame
venti ab ortu solis flantthe east winds are blowing
spectare in (vergere ad) orientem (solem), occidentem (solem), ad meridiem, in septentrionesto lie to the east, west, south, north
spectare inter occasum solis et septentrionesto be situate to the north-west
Germania quae or Germaniae ea pars quae, ad orientem, occidentem vergiteastern, western Germany
est a septentrionibus collisa hill lies to the north
situs locithe situation of a place
natura locithe natural position of a place
opportunitas loci (B. G. 3. 14)the advantageous situation of a place
opportuno loco situm or positum esseto be favourably situated
urbs situ ad aspectum praeclara estthe city is very beautifully situated
oppidum mari adiacetthe town lies near the sea
villa tangit viamthe country-house stands near the road
oppidum colli impositum estthe town stands on rising ground
oppidum monti subiectum estthe town lies at the foot of a mountain
promunturium in mare procurrita promontory juts out into the sea
paeninsula in mare excurrit, procurrita peninsula projects into the sea
promunturium superareto double a cape
urbs in sinu sita estthe city is situate on a bay
tangere, attingere terramto be contiguous, adjacent to a country
finitimum esse terraeto be contiguous, adjacent to a country
continentem esse terrae or cum terra (Fam. 15. 2. 2)to have the same boundaries; to be coterminous
Gallia Rhodano continetur (vid. sect. V. 4., note contineri aliqua re...)Gaul is bounded by the Rhone.[TR1]
Rhodanus Sequanos ab Helvetiis dividitthe Rhone.[TR2] is the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani
fines (imperii) propagare, extendere, (longius) proferreto enlarge the boundaries of a kingdom
(ex) finibus excedereto evacuate territory
in Sequanisin the country of the Sequani
in Sequanos proficiscito invade the territory of the Sequani
porrigi ad septentrionesto stretch northwards
haec gens pertinet usque ad Rhenumthe territory of this race extends as far as the Rhine
in latitudinem, in longitudinem patereto extend in breadth, in length
late patere (also metaphorically vid. sect. VIII. 8)to have a wide extent
imperium orbis terrarum terminis definiturthe empire reaches to the ends of the world
longe, procul abesse ab urbeto be far from town
prope (propius, proxime) abesseto be not far away
paribus intervallis distareto be equidistant
tantundem viae estthe road is the same length
longo spatio, intervallo interiectoat a great distance
intervallo locorum et temporum disiunctum esseto be separated by an immense interval of space and time
a mille passibusa mile away
e longinquofrom a distance
loca longinquadistant places
ultimae terraethe most distant countries, the world's end
extremae terrae partesthe most distant countries, the world's end
longinquae nationesdistant nations
viam sternere (silice, saxo)to pave a road
substruere viam glarea (Liv. 41. 27)to make a gravel path
via strataa street, a made road
via tritaa well-trodden, much-frequented way
viam munireto make a road
viam patefacere, aperireto open a route
ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)to cut one's way (through the enemies' ranks)
viam intercludereto obstruct a road; to close a route
iter obstruereto obstruct a road; to close a route
via fert, ducit aliquoa road leads somewhere
in viam se dareto set out on a journey
viae se committereto set out on a journey
viam ingredi, inire (also metaphorically)to enter upon a route; to take a road
rectā (viā)straight on
de via declinare, deflectere (also metaphorically)to turn aside from the right way; to deviate
(de via) decedere alicuimake way for any one
Appia via proficiscito set out by the Appian road
erranti viam monstrareto direct a person who has lost his way
errores Ulixisthe wanderings of Ulysses
viam persequi (also metaphorically)to continue one's journey, pursue one's course
longam viam conficereto accomplish a long journey
fessus de viaweary with travelling; way-worn
Hercules in trivio, in bivio, in compitisHercules at the cross-roads, between virtue and vice
iter facere(1) to take a journey, (2) to make, lay down a road (rare)
una iter facereto travel together
iter ingredi (pedibus, equo, terra)to begin a journey (on foot, on horseback, by land)
iter aliquo dirigere, intendereto journey towards a place
tendere aliquoto journey towards a place
longum itineris spatium emetirito finish a very long journey
ex itinere redireto return from a journey
in itinereon a journey; by the way
iter terrestre, pedestretravel by land, on foot
itinera diurna nocturnaquetravelling day and night
iter unius diei or simply dieia day's journey
iter impedituman impassable road
disiunctissimas ultimas terras peragrare (not permigrare)to travel through the most remote countries
peregrinatioa foreign journey
peregrinari, peregre esseto be travelling abroad
peregre proficiscito go abroad
aliquem proficiscentem prosequito accompany any one when starting; to see a person off
aliquem proficiscentem votis ominibusque prosequi (vid. sect. VI. 11, note Prosequi...)to wish any one a prosperous journey
rus excurrereto make a pleasure-trip into the country
ruri vivere, rusticarito live in the country
vita rusticacountry life (the life of resident farmers, etc.)
rusticatio, vita rusticanacountry life (of casual, temporary visitors)
pedibus ireto go on foot
discedere a, de, ex loco aliquoto leave a place
egredi loco; excedere ex locoto leave a place
decedere loco, de, ex locoto quit a place for ever
ingredi, intrare urbem, introire in urbemto enter a city
portā ingredi, exireto go in at, go out of a gate
extra portam egredito go outside the gate
commeare ad aliquemto go in and out of any one's house; to visit frequently
Romam venire, pervenireto come to Rome
adventus Romam, in urbemarrival in Rome, in town
in unum locum convenire, confluereto collect together at one spot
Romam concurrere (Mil. 15. 39)to stream towards Rome
obviam ire alicuito meet any one
obviam venire alicuito go to meet some one
obvium or obviam esse, obviam fierito meet some one by chance
incidere in aliquemto meet, come across a person; to meet casually
offendere, nancisci aliquemto meet, come across a person; to meet casually
obviam alicui aliquem mittereto send to meet a person
curru vehi, in rheda (Mil. 21. 55)to drive
equo vehito ride
sternere equumto saddle a horse
conscendere equumto mount
ascendere in equumto mount
descendere ex equoto dismount
in equo sedere; equo insidēreto be on horseback
(in) equo haerereto sit a horse well; to have a good seat
calcaria subdere equoto put spurs to a horse
calcaribus equum concitareto put spurs to a horse
equo citato or admissoat full gallop
freno remisso; effusis habeniswith loose reins
equum in aliquem concitareride against any one at full speed; charge a person
habenas adducereto tighten the reins
habenas permittereto slacken the reins
admittere, permittere equumto give a horse the reins
frenos dare equoto give a horse the reins
agitare equumto make a horse prance
moderari equumto manage a horse
equi consternanturthe horses are panic-stricken, run away
equos incitatos sustinereto bring horses to the halt when at full gallop
gradum facereto take a step
gradum addere (sc. gradui) (Liv. 26. 9)to increase one's pace
suspenso graduon tiptoe
gradum sensim referreto retreat step by step
vestigia alicuius sequi, persequi or vestigiis aliquem sequi, persequito follow in any one's steps
vestigiis alicuius insistere, ingredi (also metaph.)to follow in any one's steps
loco or vestigio se non moverenot to stir from one's place
recta (regione, via); in directumin a straight line
in obliquumin an oblique direction; sideways
obliquo monte decurrereto run obliquely down the hill
in contrarium; in contrarias partesin an opposite direction
in transversum, e transversoacross; transversely
quoquo versus; in omnes partesin all directions
in diversas partes or simply diversi abeunt, disceduntthey disperse in different directions
huc (et) illuchither and thither
ultro citroqueon this side and on that; to and fro
longe lateque, passim (e.g. fluere)far and wide; on all sides; everywhere
se conferre in aliquem locumto go to a place
petere locumto go to a place
quo tendis?where are you going?
sublimem or sublime (not in sublime or sublimiter) ferri, abireto fly aloft; to be carried into the sky
praecipitem ire; in praeceps deferrito fall down headlong
in profundum deicito fall down into the abyss
se deicere de muroto throw oneself from the ramparts
deicere aliquem de saxo Tarpeioto throw some one down the Tarpeian rock
Nilus praecipitat ex altissimis montibusthe Nile rushes down from very high mountains
se proripere ex domoto rush out of the house
humi procumbereto fall on the ground
humi prosternere aliquemto throw any one to the ground
in terram cadere, decidereto fall to the earth
in terram demergito sink into the earth
appropinquare urbi, rarely ad urbemto draw near to a city
propius accedere ad urbem or urbemto advance nearer to the city
longius progredi, procedereto march further forward
Romam versus proficiscito advance in the direction of Rome
ad Romam proficiscito set out for Rome
properat, maturat proficiscihe starts in all haste, precipitately
consequi, assequi aliquemto catch some one up
praecurrere aliquem (celeritate)to overtake and pass some one
post se relinquere aliquemto overtake and pass some one
multitudo circumfunditur alicuia crowd throngs around some one
per totum corpus diffundito spread over the whole body
tempus praeterit, transittime passes
tempus habere alicui reito have time for a thing
tempus mihi deest ad aliquid faciendumI have no time to do something
tempus consumere in aliqua reto pass one's time in doing something
tempus terere, conterere (in) aliqua reto waste time on something
tempus conferre ad aliquidto employ one's time in..
tempus tribuere alicui reito devote time to anything
tempus non amittere, perdereto lose no time
nullum tempus intermittere, quin (also ab opere, or ad opus)to devote every spare moment to...; to work without intermission at a thing
tempus ducereto spend time
aliquid in aliud tempus, in posterum differreto put off till another time; to postpone
nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam utI cannot wait till..
nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)nothing is more tiresome to me than..
tempus (spatium) deliberandi or ad deliberandum postulare, dare, sibi sumereto require, give, take time for deliberation
paucorum dierum spatium ad deliberandum dareto give some one a few days for reflection
tempori servire, cedereto accommodate oneself to circumstances
ex quo tempore or simply ex quosince the time that, since (at the beginning of a sentence)
eo ipso tempore, cum; tum ipsum, cumat the same moment that, precisely when
incidunt tempora, cumoccasions arise for..
tempus (ita) fert (not secum)circumstances demand
tempus maximum est, utit is high time that..
haec tempora, nostra haec aetas, memoriathe present day
his temporibus, nostra (hac) aetate, nostra memoria, his (not nostris) diebusin our time; in our days
nostra aetas multas victorias viditour generation has seen many victories
memoria patrum nostrorumin our fathers' time
aetate (temporibus) Periclisin the time of Pericles
antiquis temporibusin old days, in the olden time
libera re publicain the time of the Republic
tempora Caesarianathe imperial epoch
media quae vocatur aetasthe middle ages
Pericles summus vir illius aetatisPericles, the greatest man of his day
Pericles, quo nemo tum fuit clariorPericles, the greatest man of his day
Pericles, vir omnium, qui tum fuerunt, clarissimusPericles, the greatest man of his day
vir ut temporibus illis doctusa man of considerable learning for those times
tempore progredientein process of time
primo quoque temporeat the first opportunity
hoc temporeat this moment
puncto temporisin an instant
momento temporisat the important moment
in ipso discrimine (articulo) temporisjust at the critical moment
temporis causaon the spur of the moment
ad tempus adesseto be there at a given time
ad exiguum tempusfor a short time
brevis or exigui temporisfor a short time
satis longo intervalloafter a fairly long interval
spatio temporis intermissoafter some time
in praesentia, in praesens (tempus)at present; for the moment
in posterum; in futurumfor the future
in perpetuumfor ever
semel atque iterum; iterum ac saepius; identidem; etiam atque etiammore than once; repeatedly
futura providere (not praevidere)to foresee the future
futura or casus futuros (multo ante) prospicereto foresee the far distant future
futura non cogitare, curareto take no thought for the future
saeculi consuetudo or ratio atque inclinatio temporis (temporum)the spirit of the times, the fashion
his moribusaccording to the present custom, fashion
praeterito anno (not praeterlapso)in the past year
superiore, priore annolast year
proximo anno(1) last year; (2) next year
insequenti(e) anno (not sequente)in the following year
anno peracto, circumacto, interiecto, intermissoafter a year has elapsed
anno vertentein the course of the year
initio anni, ineunte annoat the beginning of the year
exeunte, extremo annoat the end of the year
singulis annis, diebusyear by year; day by day
quinto quoque annoevery fifth year
ad annuma year from now
amplius sunt (quam) viginti anni or viginti annisit is more than twenty years ago
viginti anni et amplius, aut plustwenty years and more
abhinc (ante) viginti annos or viginti his annistwenty years ago
quinque anni sunt or sextus annus est, cum te non vidiI have not seen you for five years
quinque annos or sextum (iam) annum abesthe has been absent five years
anno ab urbe condita quintoin the fifth year from the founding of the city
commutationes temporum quadripartitaethe succession of the four seasons
verno, aestivo, auctumnali, hiberno temporein spring, summer, autumn, winter time
ineunte, primo vereat the beginning of spring
ver appetitspring is approaching
suavitas verni temporisthe charms of spring
summa aestate, hiemein the height of summer, depth of winter
hiems subestwinter is at hand
hiemem tolerareto bear the winter
anni descriptiothe division of the year (into months, etc.)
annus (mensis, dies) intercalaristhe intercalary year (month, day)
fastithe calender (list of fasts and festivals)
ante lucembefore daybreak
prima luceat daybreak
luce (luci)in full daylight
ubi illuxit, luxit, diluxitwhen it was day
lucetit is daylight
diluculoin the morning twilight
advesperascitevening is drawing on
die, caelo vesperascentewhen it is growing dusk; towards evening
multus dies or multa lux estthe day is already far advanced
ad multam noctemtill late at night
de nocte, de diewhile it is still night, day
multa de noctelate at night
intempesta, concubia noctein the dead of night; at midnight
silentio noctisin the silence of the night
vicissitudines dierum noctiumquethe succession of day and night
noctes diesque, noctes et dies, et dies et noctes, dies noctesque, diem noctemquenight and day
tempus matutīnum, meridianum, vespertinum, nocturnummorning, noon, evening, night
tempora matutinathe morning hours
in dies (singulos)from day to day
in diem vivereto live from day to day
alternis diebusevery other day
quattuor dies continuifour successive days
unus et alter diesone or two days
dies unus, alter, plures intercesserantone, two, several days had passed, intervened
diem proferre (Att. 13. 14)to adjourn, delay
biduo seriustwo days late
horā citiusan hour too soon
postridie qui fuit dies Non. Sept. (Nonarum Septembrium) (Att. 4. 1. 5)on the day after, which was September 5th
hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non. Sept.to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th
dies hesternus, hodiernus, crastinusyesterday, to-day, tomorrow
diem dicere colloquioto appoint a date for an interview
ad diem constitutamat the appointed time
diem videre, cum...to live to see the day when..
dies dolorem mitigabittime will assuage his grief
quota hora est?what time is it?
tertia hora estit is the third hour (= 9 A.M.)
ad horam compositamat the time agreed on
omnibus artubus contremiscereto tremble in every limb
aures claudere, patefacere (e.g. veritati, assentatoribus)to turn a deaf ear to, to open one's ears to..
aures praebere alicuito listen to a person
aures alicuius obtundere or simply obtundere (aliquem)to din a thing into a person's ears
in aurem alicui dicere (insusurrare) aliquidto whisper something in a person's ears
ad aures alicuius (not alicui) pervenire, accidereto come to some one's ears
aures erigereto prick up one's ears
oratio in aures influithis words find an easy hearing, are listened to with pleasure
aures elegantes, teretes, tritae (De Or. 9. 27)a fine, practised ear
neque auribus neque oculis satis constoI am losing my eyesight and getting deaf
caput aperire (opp. operire)to uncover one's head
capite aperto (opp. operto)bare-headed
capite obvolutowith head covered
caput demittereto bow one's head
caput praecīdereto cut off a man's head
caput parieti impingereto strike one's head against the wall
cervices (in Cic. only in plur.) frangere alicui or alicuiusto break a person's neck
gladius cervicibus impendeta sword hangs over his neck
hostis in cervicibus alicuius estthe foe is at our heels, is upon us
promittere crinem, barbamto grow one's hair, beard long
passis crinibuswith dishevelled hair
capilli horrenthis hair stands on end
capilli compti, compositi (opp. horridi)well-ordered, well-brushed hair
extremis digitis aliquid attingereto touch with the fingertips
frontem contrahere (opp. explicare)to frown
frontem ferire, percutereto beat one's brow
in fronte alicuius inscriptum estone can see it in his face
ab alicuius latere non discedereto be always at a person's side
a latere regis esseto belong to the king's bodyguard
manum (dextram) alicui porrigereto give one's hand to some one
manum non vertere alicuius rei causato make not the slightest effort; not to stir a finger
manus inicere, inferre, afferre alicuito lay violent hands on a person
manus tollereto raise one's hands in astonishment
manus dareto own oneself conquered, surrender
manu ducere aliquemto lead some one by the hand
manu or in manu tenere aliquidto hold something in one's hand
in manibus habere aliquid (also metaphorically)to have something in one's hands, on hand
de manu in manus or per manus tradere aliquidto pass a thing from hand to hand
ex or de manibus alicui or alicuius extorquere aliquidto wrest from a person's hand
e manibus dimittereto let go from one's hands
in alicuius manus venire, pervenireto come into some one's hands
in alicuius manus incidereto fall unexpectedly into some one's hands
in manus(m) sumere aliquidto take something into one's hands
in manibus aliquem gestareto carry in one's arms
e (de) manibus effugere, elābito slip, escape from the hands
inter manus auferre aliquemto carry some one away in one's arms
compressis manibus sedere (proverb.) (Liv. 7. 13)to sit with folded arms; to be inactive
mordicus tenere aliquidto hold fast in the teeth (also metaphorically, obstinately)
oculos conicere in aliquemto turn one's gaze on; to regard
oculos circumferreto look in every direction
in omnes partes aciem (oculorum) intendereto gaze intently all around
omnium oculos (et ora) ad se convertereto draw every one's eyes upon one
omnium animos or mentes in se convertereto attract universal attention
conspici, conspicuum esse aliqua reto make oneself conspicuous
oculos (aures, animum) advertere ad aliquidto turn one's eyes (ears, attention) towards an object
oculi in vultu alicuius habitanthis eyes are always fixed on some one's face
oculos figere in terra and in terramto keep one's eyes on the ground
oculos pascere aliqua re (also simply pasci aliqua re)to feast one's eyes with the sight of..
oculos deicere, removere ab aliqua reto turn one's gaze away from an object
oculos operire (morienti)to close the eyes of a dying person
oculorum aciem alicui praestringere (also simply praestringere)to dazzle a person
oculos, lumina amittereto lose one's sight
oculis privare aliquemto deprive a person of his eyes
luminibus orbare aliquemto deprive a person of his eyes
oculis captum esse (vid. sect. IV. 6., note auribus, oculis...)to be blind
ante oculos aliquid versatursomething presents itself to my vision
oculis, ante oculos (animo) proponere aliquidto picture a thing to oneself; to imagine
ante oculos vestros (not vobis) res gestas proponitepicture to yourselves the circumstances
cernere et videre aliquidto see clearly, distinctly
oculis mentis videre aliquidto see with the mind's eye
in oculis aliquem ferreto cherish as the apple of one's eye
aliquis est mihi in oculisto cherish as the apple of one's eye
abire ex oculis, e conspectu alicuiusto go out of sight, disappear
venire in conspectum alicuiusto come in sight
se in conspectum dare alicuito show oneself to some one
fugere alicuius conspectum, aspectumto keep out of a person's sight
in conspectu omnium or omnibus inspectantibusbefore every one, in the sight of the world
omnia uno aspectu, conspectu intuerito take in everything at a glance
non apparereto have disappeared
pedibus obterere, conculcareto trample under foot
ad pedes alicuius accidereto fall at some one's feet
ad pedes alicuius se proicere, se abicere, procumbere, se prosternereto throw oneself at some one's feet
ad pedes alicuius iacēre, stratum esse (stratum iacēre)to prostrate oneself before a person
quod ante pedes est or positum est, non videreto fail to see what lies before one
sanguine manare, redundareto drip blood; to be deluged with blood
vultum fingereto dissemble, disguise one's feelings
vultus ficti simulatiquea feigned expression
vultum componere ad severitatemto put on a stern air
vultum non mutareto keep one's countenance, remain impassive
sensus sani, integri, incorruptisound, unimpaired senses
sensibus praeditum esseto be endowed with sense
sensu audiendi carerenot to possess the sense of hearing
sub sensum or sub oculos, sub aspectum cadereto come within the sphere of the senses
sensibus or sub sensus subiectum esseto come within the sphere of the senses
sensibus percipito be perceptible to the senses
res sensibus or oculis subiectae (De Fin. 5. 12. 36)the world of sense, the visible world
res quas oculis cernimusthe world of sense, the visible world
res externaethe world of sense, the visible world
sensus movere (more strongly pellere)to make an impression on the senses
aliquid sensus suaviter afficita thing makes a pleasant impression on the senses
aliquid sensus iucunditate perfundita thing makes a pleasant impression on the senses
pulsu externo, adventicio agitarito be affected by some external impulse, by external impressions
sevocare mentem a sensibus (De Nat. D. 3. 8. 21)to free one's mind from the influences of the senses
aliquid a sensibus meis abhorretsomething offends my instincts, goes against the grain
vires corporis or merely viresbodily strength
vires colligereto gain strength
vires aliquem deficiuntto lose strength
dum vires suppetuntas long as one's strength holds out
bonis esse viribusto be robust, vigorous
pro viribus or pro mea parteas well as I can; to the best of my ability
pro virili parte (cf. sect. V. 22.)as well as I can; to the best of my ability
in lucem edito see the light, come into the world
ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximusthose to whom we owe our being
tollere or suscipere liberosto accept as one's own child; to make oneself responsible for its nurture and education
aliquem in liberorum loco habereto treat as one's own child
sexus (not genus) virilis, muliebristhe male, female sex
patre, (e) matre natusson of such and such a father, mother
Cato Uticensis ortus erat a Catone CensorioCato of Utica was a direct descendant of Cato the Censor
originem ab aliquo trahere, ducereto trace one's descent from some one
Romae natus, (a) Roma oriundusa native of Rome
cuias eswhat country do you come from?
natione, genere Anglusan Englishman by birth
ortus ab Anglis or oriundus ex Anglisa native of England
urbs patria or simply patrianative place
animam, spiritum ducereto breathe, live
aera spiritu ducereto breathe the air
animam continereto hold one's breath
cursu exanimari (B.G. 2. 23. 1)to run till one is out of breath
spiritum intercludere alicuito suffocate a person
in vita esseto be alive
vita or hac luce fruito enjoy the privilege of living; to be alive
vitam beatam (miseram) degereto live a happy (unhappy) life
vitam, aetatem (omnem aetatem, omne aetatis tempus) agere (honeste, ruri, in litteris), degere, traducereto live (all) one's life (honourably, in the country, as a man of learning)
dum vita suppetit; dum (quoad) vivoas long as I live
si vita mihi suppeditatif I live till then
si vita suppetitif I live till then
quod reliquum est vitaethe rest of one's life
vitae cursum or curriculum conficereto finish one's career
Homerus fuit multis annis ante Romam conditamHomer lived many years before the foundation of Rome
ea aetate, id aetatis esseto be of such and such an age
a puero (is), a parvo (is), a parvulo (is)from youth up
a teneris unguiculis (ἐξ ἁπαλων ὀνύχων) (Fam. 1. 6. 2)from one's cradle, from one's earliest childhood
ab ineunte (prima) aetate (De Or. 1. 21. 97)from one's entry into civil life
ex pueris excedereto leave one's boyhood behind one, become a man
flos aetatisthe prime of youthful vigour
aetate florere, vigereto be in the prime of life
integra aetate esseto be in the prime of life
adulescentia deferbuitthe fires of youth have cooled
aetate progredientewith advancing years
aetate ingravescentewith the weight, weakness of declining years
aetas constans, media, firmata, corroborata (not virilis)manhood
grandior factushaving reached man's estate
corroborata, firmata aetatehaving reached man's estate
sui iuris factum esseto have become independent, be no longer a minor
aetate provectum esse (not aetate provecta)to be advanced in years
longius aetate provectum esseto be more advanced in years
grandis natuaged
aetate affecta esseto be infirm through old age
vires consenescuntto become old and feeble
senectute, senio confectum esseto be worn out by old age
exacta aetate morito die at a good old age
ad summam senectutem pervenireto live to a very great age
senectus nobis obrēpitold age creeps on us insensibly
admodum adulescens, senexstill quote a young (old) man
extrema aetasthe last stage of life, one's last days
extremum tempus aetatisthe last stage of life, one's last days
vita occidensthe evening of life
aequalem esse alicuiusto be a contemporary of a person
maior (natu)the elder
aetate alicui antecedere, anteireto be older than
quot annos natus es?how old are you?
qua aetate es?how old are you?
tredecim annos natus sumI am thirteen years old
tertium decimum annum agoI am in my thirteenth year
puer decem annoruma boy ten years old
decimum aetatis annum ingredito be entering on one's tenth year
decem annos vixisseto be ten years old
decimum annum excessisse, egressum esseto be more than ten years old, to have entered on one's eleventh year
minorem esse viginti annisto be not yet twenty
tum habebam decem annosI was ten years old at the time
centum annos complereto reach one's hundredth year, to live to be a hundred
vitam ad annum centesimum perducereto reach one's hundredth year, to live to be a hundred
accessio paucorum annorumthe addition of a few years
tertiam iam aetatem videreto be middle-aged (i.e. between thirty and forty)
in aetatem alicuius, in annum incidereto happen during a person's life, year of office
omnium suorum or omnibus suis superstitem esseto outlive, survive all one's kin
homines qui nunc sunt (opp. qui tunc fuerunt)our contemporaries; men of our time
homines huius aetatis, nostrae memoriaeour contemporaries; men of our time
posteriposterity
scriptores aetate posteriores or inferioreslater writers
esurireto be hungry
fame laborare, premito be tormented by hunger, to be starving
famem tolerare, sustentareto endure the pangs of hunger
inediā mori or vitam finireto starve oneself to death
fame confici, perire, interireto die of starvation
fame necarito be starved to death (as punishment)
famem, sitim explereto allay one's hunger, thirst
famem sitimque depellere cibo et potioneto allay one's hunger, thirst
siti cruciari, premito suffer agonies of thirst
sitim colligereto become thirsty
sitim haustu gelidae aquae sedareto slake one's thirst by a draught of cold water
famis et sitis patientem esseto be able to endure hunger and thirst
risum edere, tollereto begin to laugh
cachinnum tollere, edereto burst into a roar of laughter
risum movere, concitareto raise a laugh
risum elicere (more strongly excutere) alicuito make a person laugh
risum captareto try and raise a laugh
risum tenere vix posseto be scarcely able to restrain one's laughter
risum aegre continere posseto be scarcely able to restrain one's laughter
aliquid in risum vertereto make a thing ridiculous, turn it into a joke
lacrimas, vim lacrimarum effundere, profundereto burst into a flood of tears
in lacrimas effundi or lacrimis perfundito be bathed in tears
lacrimis obortiswith tears in one's eyes
multis cum lacrimiswith many tears
magno cum fletuwith many tears
lacrimas tenere non posseto be hardly able to restrain one's tears
fletum cohibere non posseto be hardly able to restrain one's tears
vix mihi tempero quin lacrimemto be hardly able to restrain one's tears
vix me contineo quin lacrimemto be hardly able to restrain one's tears
lacrimas or fletum alicui movereto move to tears
prae lacrimis loqui non posseto be unable to speak for emotion
gaudio lacrimareto weep for joy
hinc illae lacrimae (proverb.) (Ter. And. 1. 1. 99; Cael. 25. 61)hence these tears; there's the rub
lacrimula (Planc. 31. 76)crocodiles' tears
lacrimae simulataecrocodiles' tears
bona (firma, prospera) valetudine esse or uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)to enjoy good health
valetudini consulere, operam dareto take care of one's health
firma corporis constitutio or affectioa good constitution
infirma, aegra valetudine esse or utito be ill, weakly
in morbum incidithe fell ill
aegrotare coepithe fell ill
morbo tentari or corripito be attacked by disease
morbo afflīgito be laid on a bed of sickness
lecto tenerito be confined to one's bed
vehementer, graviter aeogratare, iacēreto be seriously ill
gravi morbo affectum esse, conflictari, vexarito be seriously ill
leviter aegrotare, minus valereto be indisposed
aestu et febri iactarito have a severe attack of fever
omnibus membris captum esseto be affected by disease in every limb; to be paralysed
ex pedibus laborare, pedibus aegrum esseto have the gout
pestilentia (not pestis) in urbem (populum) invaditthe plague breaks out in the city
animus relinquit aliquema man loses his senses, becomes unconscious
morbus ingravescitthe disease gets worse
morbo absūmi (Sall. Iug. 5. 6)to be carried off by a disease
assidēre aegroto (Liv. 25. 26)to watch by a sick man's bedside
aegrotum curareto treat as a patient (used of a doctor)
curationesmethod of treatment
aegrotum sanare (not curare)to cure a patient
ex morbo convalescere (not reconvalescere)to recover from a disease
e gravi morbo recreari or se colligereto recruit oneself after a severe illness
melius ei factum esthe feels better
valetudinem (morbum) excusare (Liv. 6. 22. 7)to excuse oneself on the score of health
valetudinis excusatione utito excuse oneself on the score of health
cubitum ireto go to bed
somno or quieti se tradereto lay oneself down to sleep
somnum capere non posseto be unable to sleep
curae somnum mihi adimunt, dormire me non sinuntI cannot sleep for anxiety
somnum oculis meis non vidi (Fam. 7. 30)I haven't had a wink of sleep
arte, graviter dormire (ex lassitudine)to sleep soundly (from fatigue)
artus somnus aliquem complectitur (Rep. 6. 10)to fall fast asleep
somno captum, oppressum esseto be overcome by sleep
sopītum esseto be sound asleep
in lucem dormireto sleep on into the morning
somno solvito awake
(e) somno excitare, dormientem excitareto rouse, wake some one
e lecto or e cubīli surgereto rise from one's bed, get up
per somnum, in somnisin a dream
per quietem, in quietein a dream
in somnis videre aliquid or speciemto see something in a dream
in somnis visus (mihi) sum videreI dreamed I saw..
species mihi dormienti oblata estI saw a vision in my dreams
somnium verum evādit (Div. 2. 53. 108)my dream is coming true
somnium interpretarito explain a dream
somniorum interpres, coniectoran interpreter of dreams
somniare de aliquoto dream of a person
(de) vita decedere or merely decedereto depart this life
(ex) vita excedere, ex vita abireto depart this life
de vita exire, de (ex) vita migrareto depart this life
mortem (diem supremum) obireto depart this life
supremo vitae dieon one's last day
animam edere or efflareto give up the ghost
extremum vitae spiritum edereto give up the ghost
animam agereto be at one's last gasp
mors immatura or praematuraan untimely death
mature decedereto die young
subita morte exstinguito be cut off by sudden death
necessaria (opp. voluntaria) morte morito die a natural death
morbo perire, absūmi, consūmito die a natural death
debitum naturae reddere (Nep. Reg. 1)to die a natural death
mortem sibi consciscereto commit suicide
se vita privareto take one's own life
manus, vim sibi afferreto lay hands on oneself
vitae finem facereto put an end to one's life
talem vitae exitum (not finem) habuit (Nep. Eum. 13)such was the end of... (used of a violent death)
mortem oppetereto meet death (by violence)
mortem occumbere pro patriato die for one's country
sanguinem suum pro patria effundere or profundereto shed one's blood for one's fatherland
vitam profundere pro patriato sacrifice oneself for one's country
se morti offerre pro salute patriaeto sacrifice oneself for one's country
dare venenum in paneto give a person poison in bread
venenum sumere, bibereto take poison
veneno sibi mortem consciscereto poison oneself
poculum mortis (mortiferum) exhaurire (Cluent. 11. 31)to drain the cup of poison
potestas vitae necisquepower over life and death
plagam extremam or mortiferam infligereto inflict a death-blow
e or de medio tollereto remove a person
perii! actum est de me! (Ter. Ad. 3. 2. 26)I'm undone! it's all up with me!
funere efferri or simply efferri (publice; publico, suo sumptu)to be interred (at the expense of the state, at one's own cost)
sepultura aliquem afficereto bury a person
iusta facere, solvere alicuito perform the last rites for a person
supremo officio in aliquem fungito perform the last rites for a person
funus alicui facere, ducere (Cluent. 9. 28)to carry out the funeral obsequies
funus alicuius exsequito attend a person's funeral
exsequias alicuius funeris prosequito attend a person's funeral
supremis officiis aliquem prosequi (vid sect. VI. 11., note Prosequi...)to perform the last offices of affection
mortuum in sepulcro condereto entomb a dead body
aliquem mortuum cremare (Sen. 23. 84)to burn a corpse
pompa funebrisa funeral procession
funus or exsequias celebrareto celebrate the obsequies
ludos funebres alicui dareto give funeral games in honour of a person
oratio funebrisa funeral oration
sepulturae honore carereto be deprived of the rites of burial
iustis exsequiarum carereto be deprived of the rites of burial
elogium in sepulcro incisumthe epitaph
sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum estthis is the inscription on his tomb..
hic situs est...here lies..
aliquem in rogum imponereto place on the funeral-pyre
proiici inhumatum (in publicum)to be cast out unburied
res humanae or simply reshuman life
haec est rerum humanarum condiciothat is the way of the world; such is life
sic vita hominum estthat is the way of the world; such is life
ita (ea lege, ea condicione) nati sumusthis is our natural tendency, our destiny; nature compels us
res externas or humanas despicereto despise earthly things
res humanas infra se positas arbitrarito feel superior to the affairs of life
meliore (deteriore) condicione esse, utito find one's circumstances altered for the better (the worse)
condicio ac fortuna hominum infimi generisthe position of the lower classes
res meae meliore loco, in meliore causa suntmy position is considerably improved; my prospects are brighter
meliorem in statum redigormy position is considerably improved; my prospects are brighter
aliquem in antiquum statum, in pristinum restituereto restore a man to his former position
in tanta rerum (temporum) iniquitateunder such unfavourable circumstances
res dubiae, perditae, afflictaea critical position; a hopeless state of affairs
in angustias adducere aliquemto place some one in an embarrassing position
in angustiis, difficultatibus, esse or versarito be in a dilemma; in difficulties
angustiis premi, difficultatibus afficito be in a dilemma; in difficulties
agitur praeclare, bene cum aliquoso-and-so is in a very satisfactory position; prospers
res ita est, ita (sic) se habetthe facts are these; the matter stands thus
eadem (longe alia) est huius rei ratiothe case is exactly similar (entirely different)
hoc longe aliter, secus estthis is quite another matter
res (ita) fertcircumstances make this necessary; the exigencies of the case are these
pro re (nata), pro temporeaccording to circumstances
pro tempore et pro reaccording to circumstances
res eo or in eum locum deducta est, ut...the matter has gone so far that...; the state of affairs is such that..
quo loco res tuae sunt?how are you getting on?
eadem est causa mea or in eadem causa summy circumstances have not altered
si quid (humanitus) mihi accidat or accideritif anything should happen to me; if I die
quae cum ita sintunder such circumstances
utcumque res cecideritwhatever happens; in any case
initium capere; incipere ab aliqua reto begin with a thing
initium facere, ducere, sumere (alicuius rei)to commence a thing
ab exiguis initiis proficiscito start from small beginnings
parare with Inf.to prepare to do a thing
aggredi ad aliquid faciendumto prepare to do a thing
incunabula doctrinaethe origin, first beginnings of learning
finem facere alicuius reito finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing
finem imponere, afferre, constituere alicui reito finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing
ad finem aliquid adducereto finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing
ad exitum aliquid perducereto finish, complete, fulfil, accomplish a thing
finem habereto come to an end
aliquid (bene, prospere) succedit or procedit (opp. parum procedere, non succedere)the matter progresses favourably, succeeds
eventum, exitum (felicem) habereto turn out (well); to result (satisfactorily)
quorsum haec res cadet or evadet?what will be the issue, end, consequence of the matter?
ad irritum redigere aliquidto frustrate, nullify
res aliter cecidit ac putaveramthe result has surprised me; I was not prepared for this development
quid illo fiet?what will become of him?
quid huic homini (also hoc homine) faciam?what am I to do with this fellow?
causam afferreto quote as a reason; give as excuse
iustis de causisfor valid reasons
magnae (graves) necessariae causaecogent, decisive reasons
non sine causaon good grounds; reasonably
quid causae fuit cur...?how came it that...?
causa posita est in aliqua rethe motive, cause, is to be found in..
causa repetenda est ab aliqua re (not quaerenda)the motive, cause, is to be found in..
multae causae me impulerunt ad aliquid or ut...I was induced by several considerations to..
causam interponere or interserereto interpose, put forward an argument, a reason
praetendere, praetexere aliquidto make something an excuse, pretext
causam idoneam nanciscito find a suitable pretext
per causam (with Gen.)under the pretext, pretence of..
causae rerum et consecutionescause and effect
causae extrinsecus allatae (opp. in ipsa re positae)extraneous causes
rerum causae aliae ex aliis nexaeconcatenation, interdependence of causes
ex parvis saepe magnarum rerum momenta pendentimportant results are often produced by trivial causes
ex aliqua re nasci, manareto originate in, arise from
ab aliqua re proficiscito originate in, arise from
ex aliqua re redundare (in or ad aliquid)to accrue in great abundance
utilitas efflorescit ex aliqua reuntold advantages arise from a thing
e fontibus haurire (opp. rivulos consectari or fontes non videre)to draw from the fountain-head
haec ex eodem fonte fluunt, manantthese things have the same origin
fons et caput (vid. sect. III., note caput...)source, origin
rationem habere alicuius reito have regard for; take into consideration
respicere aliquidto have regard for; take into consideration
quo in generefrom this point of view; similarly
multis rebus or locisin many respects; in many points
in utraque rein both cases; whichever way you look at it
ceteris rebus (not cetera)as regards the rest; otherwise
omni ex parte; in omni genere; omnibus rebusfrom every point of view; looked at in every light
aliqua ex parteto a certain extent
aliquatenusto a certain extent
magni (nullius) momenti esseto be of great (no) importance
momentum afferre ad aliquidto determine the issue of; to turn the scale
pertinere ad aliquidto be essentially important to a thing
hoc nihil ad sapientem pertineta wise man is in no way affected by this
hoc in sapientem non caditit is incompatible with the nature of a wise man; the wise are superior to such things
multum valere ad aliquidto contribute much towards...; to affect considerably; to be instrumental in..
multum afferre ad aliquidto contribute much towards...; to affect considerably; to be instrumental in..
magnam vim habere ad aliquidto have considerable influence on a question
positum, situm esse in aliqua reto depend upon a thing
contineri aliqua reto depend upon a thing
consistere in aliqua reto depend upon a thing
pendēre ex aliqua reto depend upon a thing
in te omnia sunteverything depends on you
in ea re omnia vertunturall depends on this; this is the decisive point
constare ex aliqua reto be composed of; to consist of
cernitur (in) aliqua re (not ex aliqua re)it is evident from..
in manu, in potestate alicuius situm, positum esseto be in a person's power
penes aliquem esseto be in a person's power
res integra estthe matter is still undecided; it is an open question
res mihi integra estI have not yet committed myself
mihi non est integrum, ut...it is no longer in my power
integrum (causam integram) sibi reservareto leave the question open; to refuse to commit oneself
penes te arbitrium huius rei estthe decision of the question rests with you
arbitrio alicuius omnia permittereto put the matter entirely in some one's hands
omnium rerum arbitrium alicui permittereto put the matter entirely in some one's hands
arbitratu, arbitrio tuojust as you wish
occasio datur, offertura favourable opportunity presents itself
occasione data, oblatawhen occasion offers; as opportunity occurs
per occasionemwhen occasion offers; as opportunity occurs
quotienscunque occasio oblata est; omnibus locison every occasion; at every opportunity
occasionem alicui dare, praebere alicuius rei or ad aliquid faciendumto give a man the opportunity of doing a thing
facultatem alicui dare alicuius rei or ut possit...to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing
potestatem, copiam alicui dare, facere with Gen. gerund.to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing
occasionem nanciscito get, meet with, a favourable opportunity
occasione utito make use of, avail oneself of an opportunity
occasionem praetermittere, amittere (through carelessness), omittere (deliberately), dimittere (through indifference)to lose, let slip an opportunity
occasioni deesseto neglect an opportunity
occasionem arripereto seize an opportunity
facultatem, potestatem alicui eripere, adimereto deprive a man of the chance of doing a thing
nulla est facultas alicuius reino opportunity of carrying out an object presents itself
locum dare suspicionito give ground for suspicion
ansas dare ad reprehendum, reprehensionisto give occasion for blame; to challenge criticism
ansam habere reprehensionisto contain, afford matter for criticism
adduci aliqua re (ad aliquid or ut...)to be induced by a consideration
nescio quo casu (with Indic.)by some chance or other
temere et fortuito; forte (et) temerequite accidentally, fortuitously
fortuna secunda utito be fortunate, lucky
fortunae favore or prospero flatu fortunae uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)to be favoured by Fortune; to bask in Fortune's smiles
fortunam fautricem nanciscito be favoured by Fortune; to bask in Fortune's smiles
fortuna caecos homines efficit, animos occaecatFortune makes men shortsighted, infatuates them
fortunam tentare, experirito try one's luck
fortunam periclitari (periculum facere)to run a risk; to tempt Providence
fortunae se committereto trust to luck
fortunam in manibus habereto have success in one's grasp
fortunam ex manibus dimittereto let success slip through one's fingers
fortuna commutatur, se inclinatluck is changing, waning
ludibrium fortunaethe plaything of Fortune
is, quem fortuna complexa estFortune's favourite
a fortuna desertum, derelictum esseto be abandoned by good luck
fortuna aliquem effertFortune exalts a man, makes him conspicuous
rebus secundis efferrito be puffed up by success; to be made arrogant by prosperity
ad felicitatem (magnus) cumulus accedit ex aliqua rehis crowning happiness is produced by a thing; the culminating point of his felicity is..
aliquid felicitatis cumulum afferthis crowning happiness is produced by a thing; the culminating point of his felicity is..
aliquid felicitatem magno cumulo augethis crowning happiness is produced by a thing; the culminating point of his felicity is..
in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem fluentibuswhen life runs smoothly
beata vita, beate vivere, beatum essehappiness, bliss
ad bene beateque vivendumfor a life of perfect happiness
peropportune accidit, quodit is most fortunate that..
fortuna adversamisfortune, adversity
res adversae, afflictae, perditaemisfortune, adversity
in calamitatem incidereto be overtaken by calamity
calamitatem accipere, subireto suffer mishap
nihil calamitatis (in vita) videreto live a life free from all misfortune
calamitatem haurireto drain the cup of sorrow
omnes labores exanclareto drain the cup of sorrow
calamitatem, pestem inferre alicuito bring mishap, ruin on a person
calamitatibus affligito be the victim of misfortune
calamitatibus obruito be overwhelmed with misfortune
calamitatibus defungito come to the end of one's troubles
calamitate doctusschooled by adversity
conflictari (cum) adversa fortunato struggle with adversity
in malis iacereto be broken down by misfortune
malis urgerito be hard pressed by misfortune
fortunae vicissitudinesthe vicissitudes of fortune
ancipites et varii casusthe changes and chances of this life
sub varios incertosque casus subiectum esseto have to submit to the uncertainties of fortune; to be subject to Fortune's caprice
multis casibus iactarito experience the ups and downs of life
ad omnes casus subsidia comparareto be prepared for all that may come
varia fortuna utito experience the vicissitudes of fortune; to have a chequered career
multis iniquitatibus exercerito be severely tried by misfortune
fortunae telis propositum esseto be exposed to the assaults of fate
fortunae obiectum esseto be abandoned to fate
ad iniurias fortunae expositum esseto be a victim of the malice of Fortune
fortunae cedereto acquiesce in one's fate
aliquem affligere, perdere, pessumdare, in praeceps dareto bring a man to ruin; to destroy
praecipitem agi, ireto be ruined, undone
ad exitium vocarito be ruined, undone
ad interitum ruereto be ruined, undone
in perniciem incurrereto be ruined, undone
pestem alicui (in aliquem) machinarito compass, devise a man's overthrow, ruin
perniciem (exitium) alicui afferre, moliri, parareto compass, devise a man's overthrow, ruin
ab exitio, ab interitu aliquem vindicareto rescue from destruction
in periculo esse or versarito be in danger
res in summo discrimine versaturthe position is very critical
in vitae discrimine versarito be in peril of one's life
in pericula incidere, incurrereto find oneself in a hazardous position
pericula alicui impendent, imminentdangers threaten a man
pericula in or ad aliquem redundantmany dangers hem a person in; one meets new risks at every turn
pericula subire, adire, suscipereto incur danger, risk
periculis se offerreto expose oneself to peril
salutem, vitam suam in discrimen offerre (not exponere)to risk one's life
aliquem, aliquid in periculum (discrimen) adducere, vocareto endanger, imperil a person or thing
alicui periculum creare, conflareto endanger, imperil a person or thing
in periculum capitis, in discrimen vitae se inferreto recklessly hazard one's life
salus, caput, vita alicuius agitur, periclitatur, in discrimine est or versatura man's life is at stake, is in very great danger
in ipso periculi discrimineat the critical moment
aliquem ex periculo eripere, servareto rescue from peril
nullum periculum recusare proto avoid no risk in order to..
periculis perfungito surmount dangers
periculum facere alicuius reito make trial of; to risk
periculum hostis facereto try one's strength with the enemy; to try issue of battle
res ad extremum casum perducta estaffairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties
ad extrema perventum estaffairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties
in tuto esseto be in a position of safety
in tuto collocare aliquidto ensure the safety of a thing
auxilium, opem, salutem ferre alicuito bring aid to; to rescue
auxilio alicui venireto come to assist any one
alicuius opem implorareto implore a person's help
confugere ad aliquem or ad opem, ad fidem alicuiusto fly to some one for refuge
ad extremum auxilium descendereto be reduced to one's last resource
auxilium praesensprompt assistance
adesse alicui or alicuius rebus (opp. deesse)to assist, stand by a person
salutem alicui afferreto deliver, rescue a person
saluti suae consulere, prospicereto take measures for one's safety; to look after one's own interests
suis rebus or sibi consulereto take measures for one's safety; to look after one's own interests
salutem expedireto effect a person's deliverance
solacium praebereto comfort
nihil habere consolationisto afford no consolation
hoc solacio frui, utito solace oneself with the thought..
consolari aliquem de aliqua reto comfort a man in a matter; to condole with him
consolari dolorem alicuiusto soothe grief
consolari aliquem in miseriisto comfort in misfortune
hoc (illo) solacio me consōlorI console myself with..
haec (illa) res me consolaturI console myself with..
divitiis, copiis abundareto be rich, wealthy
magnas opes habereto be very rich; to be in a position of affluence
opibus maxime florereto be very rich; to be in a position of affluence
omnibus opibus circumfluereto be very rich; to be in a position of affluence
fortunis maximis ornatum esseto be in the enjoyment of a large fortune
in omnium rerum abundantia vivereto live in great affluence
aliquem ex paupere divitem facereto raise a man from poverty to wealth
inopia alicuius rei laborare, premito suffer from want of a thing
ad egestatem, ad inopiam (summam omnium rerum) redigito be reduced to (abject) poverty
vitam inopem sustentare, tolerareto earn a precarious livelihood
in egestate esse, versarito live in poverty, destitution
vitam in egestate degereto live in poverty, destitution
in summa egestate or mendicitate esseto be entirely destitute; to be a beggar
stipem colligereto beg alms
stipem (pecuniam) conferreto contribute alms
usui or ex usu esseto be of use
utilitatem afferre, praebereto be serviceable
multum (nihil) ad communem utilitatem afferreto considerably (in no way) further the common good
aliquid in usum suum conferreto employ in the furtherance of one's interests
omnia ad suam utilitatem referreto consider one's own advantage in everything
rationibus alicuius prospicere or consulere (opp. officere, obstare, adversari)to look after, guard a person's interests, welfare
commodis alicuius servireto look after, guard a person's interests, welfare
commoda alicuius tuerito look after, guard a person's interests, welfare
meae rationes ita tuleruntmy interests demanded it
fructum (uberrimum) capere, percipere, consequi ex aliqua reto derive (great) profit , advantage from a thing
fructus ex hac re redundant in or ad me(great) advantage accrues to me from this
aliquid ad meum fructum redundatI am benefited by a thing
quid attinet? with Infin.what is the use of?
cui bono?who gets the advantage from this? who is the interested party?
damnum (opp. lucrum) facereto suffer loss, harm, damage
damno afficito suffer loss, harm, damage
detrimentum capere, accipere, facereto suffer loss, harm, damage
iacturam alicuius rei facereto throw away, sacrifice
damnum inferre, afferre alicuito do harm to, injure any one
damnum ferreto know how to endure calamity
incommodo afficere aliquemto inconvenience, injure a person
incommodis mederito relieve a difficulty
damnum or detrimentum sarcire (not reparare)to make good, repair a loss or injury
damnum compensare cum aliqua reto balance a loss by anything
res repetereto demand restitution, satisfaction
res restituereto give restitution, satisfaction
benevolo animo esse in aliquemto be well-disposed towards..
benevolentiam habere erga aliquemto be well-disposed towards..
benevolentiam, favorem, voluntatem alicuius sibi conciliare or colligere (ex aliqua re)to find favour with some one; to get into their good graces
benevolentiam alicui praestare, in aliquem conferreto show kindness to..
benevolentia aliquem complecti or prosequito show kindness to..
gratiosum esse alicui or apud aliquemto be popular with; to stand well with a person
in gratia esse apud aliquemto be popular with; to stand well with a person
multum valere gratia apud aliquemto be highly favoured by; to be influential with..
florere gratia alicuiusto be highly favoured by; to be influential with..
gratiam inire ab aliquoor apud aliquemto gain a person's esteem, friendship
in gratiam alicuius venireto gain a person's esteem, friendship
gratiam alicuius sibi quaerere, sequi, more strongly aucuparito court a person's favour; to ingratiate oneself with..
studere, favere alicuito look favourably upon; to support
studiosum esse alicuiusto look favourably upon; to support
propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)to look favourably upon; to support
alicui morem gerere, obsequito comply with a person's wishes; to humour
alicuius causa velle or cupereto be favourably disposed towards
gratum (gratissimum) alicui facereto do any one a (great) favour
se conformare, se accommodare ad alicuius voluntatemto accomodate oneself to another's wishes
alicuius voluntati morem gerereto accomodate oneself to another's wishes
se convertere, converti ad alicuius nutumto take one's directions from another; to obey him in everything
totum se fingere et accommodare ad alicuius arbitrium et nutumto be at the beck and call of another; to be his creature
voluntatemor animum alicuius a se abalienare, aliquem a se abalienare or alienareto become estranged, alienated from some one
beneficium alicui dare, tribuereto do any one a service or kindness
beneficio aliquem afficere, ornareto do any one a service or kindness
beneficia in aliquem conferreto heap benefits upon..
beneficiis aliquem obstringere, obligare, devincireto lay any one under an obligation by kind treatment
beneficium remunerari or reddere (cumulate)to (richly) recompense a kindness or service
gratus (opp. ingratus) animusgratitude
gratiam alicui debereto owe gratitude to; to be under an obligation to a person
gratiam alicui habereto feel gratitude (in one's heart)
gratiam alicui referre (meritam, debitam) pro aliqua reto show gratitude (in one's acts)
gratias alicui agere pro aliqua reto thank a person (in words)
grates agere (dis immortalibus)to give thanks to heaven
gratiam mererito merit thanks; to do a thankworthy action
par pari referreto return like for like
paria paribus respondereto return like for like
bonam (praeclaram) gratiam referreto reward amply; to give manifold recompense for
benefacta maleficiis pensareto return evil for good
maleficia benefactis remunerarito return good for evil
pro maleficiis beneficia reddereto return good for evil
bene, praeclare (melius, optime) mereri de aliquoto deserve well at some one's hands; to do a service to..
male mereri de aliquoto deserve ill of a person; to treat badly
meritum alicuius in or erga aliquemwhat a man merits at another's hands
nullo meo meritoI had not deserved it
ex, pro meritoaccording to a man's deserts
multum (aliquid) alicui rei tribuereto consider of importance; to set much (some) store by a thing
multum alicui tribuereto value, esteem a person
praemiis (amplissimis, maximis) aliquem afficereto remunerate (handsomely)
meritum praemium alicui persolvereto reward a man according to his deserts
praemium exponere or proponere(to encourage) by offering a reward
praemium ponereto offer a prize (for the winner)
palmam deferre, dare alicuito award the prize to..
palmam ferre, auferreto win the prize
pacta merces alicuius reithe stipulated reward for anything
mercede conductum esseto be hired, suborned
orare et obsecrare aliquemto entreat earnestly; to make urgent requests
magno opere, vehementer, etiam atque etiam rogare aliquemto entreat earnestly; to make urgent requests
precibus aliquem fatigareto importune with petitions
supplicibus verbis orareto crave humbly; to supplicate
precibus obsequito grant a request
alicui petenti satisfacere, non deesseto accede to a man's petitions
magnis (infimis) precibus moverito be influenced by, to yield to urgent (abject) entreaty
negare, more strongly denegare alicui aliquidto refuse, reject a request
petenti alicui negare aliquidto refuse, reject a request
repudiare, aspernari preces alicuiusto refuse, reject a request
nihil tibi a me postulanti recusaboI will refuse you nothing
aliquid ab aliquo impetrareto gain one's point with any one
optata mihi continguntmy wishes are being fulfilled
voluntati alicuius satisfacere, obsequito satisfy a person's wishes
ex sententiaas one would wish; to one's mind
aliquid optimis ominibus prosequi (vid. sect. VI. 11., note Prosequi...)to wish prosperity to an undertaking
bene id tibi vertat!I wish you all success in the matter
mandatum, negotium alicui dareto entrust a matter to a person; to commission
negotium ad aliquem deferreto entrust a matter to a person; to commission
mandatum exsequi, persequi, conficereto execute a commission
iussa (usually only in plur.), imperata facereto carry out orders
amicitiam cum aliquo jungere, facere, inire, contrahereto form a friendship with any one
amicitiam colereto keep up, foster a connection
uti aliquo amicoto be friendly with any one
est or intercedit mihi cum aliquo amicitiaI am on good terms with a person
sunt or intercedunt mihi cum aliquo inimicitiaeI am on bad terms with a person
uti aliquo familiariterto be on very intimate terms with..
artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esseto be bound by the closest ties of friendship
vetustate amicitiae coniunctum esseto be very old friends
amicitiam alicuius appetereto court a person's friendship
in amicitiam alicuius recipito gain some one's friendship; to become intimate with
ad alicuius amicitiam se conferre, se applicareto gain some one's friendship; to become intimate with
aliquem (tertium) ad (in) amicitiam ascribereto admit another into the circle of one's intimates
amicitiam renuntiareto renounce, give up a friendship
amicitiam dissuere, dissolvere, praecīdereto renounce, give up a friendship
amicissimus meus or mihimy best friend
homo intimus, familiarissimus mihimy most intimate acquaintance
inimicitias gerere, habere, exercere cum aliquoto be at enmity with a man
inimicitias cum aliquo suscipereto make a person one's enemy
inimicitias deponereto lay aside one's differences
aequi iniquifriend and foe
placare aliquem alicui or in aliquemto reconcile two people; to be a mediator
reconciliare alicuius animum or simply aliquem alicuito reconcile two people; to be a mediator
in gratiam aliquem cum aliquo reducereto reconcile two people; to be a mediator
in gratiam cum aliquo redireto be reconciled; to make up a quarrel
sibi aliquem, alicuius animum reconciliare or reconciliari alicuito be reconciled; to make up a quarrel
magna auctoritate esseto possess great authority; to be an influential person
auctoritate valere or florereto possess great authority; to be an influential person
magna auctoritas est in aliquoto possess great authority; to be an influential person
multum auctoritate valere, posse apud aliquemto have great influence with a person; to have considerable weight
magna auctoritas alicuius est apud aliquemto have great influence with a person; to have considerable weight
alicuius auctoritas multum valet apud aliquemto have great influence with a person; to have considerable weight
auctoritatem or dignitatem sibi conciliare, parareto gain dignity; to make oneself a person of consequence
ad summam auctoritatem pervenireto attain to the highest eminence
auctoritatem alicuius amplificare (opp. imminuere, minuere)to increase a person's dignity
auctoritati, dignitati alicuius illudereto insult a person's dignity
dignitas est summa in aliquoto be in a dignified position
summa dignitate praeditum esseto be in a dignified position
aliquid alienum (a) dignitate sua or merely a se ducereto consider a thing beneath one's dignity
aliquid infra se ducere or infra se positum arbitrarito consider a thing beneath one's dignity
laudem tribuere, impertire alicuito praise, extol, commend a person
laude afficere aliquemto praise, extol, commend a person
(maximis, summis) laudibus efferre aliquem or aliquidto praise, extol, commend a person
eximia laude ornare aliquemto praise, extol, commend a person
omni laude cumulare aliquemto overwhelm with eulogy
laudibus aliquem (aliquid) in caelum ferre, efferre, tollereto extol, laud to the skies
alicuius laudes praedicareto spread a person's praises
aliquem beatum praedicareto consider happy
omnium undique laudem colligereto win golden opinions from every one
maximam ab omnibus laudem adipiscito win golden opinions from every one
aliquid laudi alicui ducere, dareto consider a thing creditable to a man
aliquem coram, in os or praesentem laudareto praise a man to his face
recte, bene fecisti quod...you were right in...; you did right to..
res mihi probatura thing meets with my approval
res a me probaturI express my approval of a thing
hoc in te reprehendo (not ob eam rem)I blame this in you; I censure you for this
vituperationem subireto suffer reproof; to be criticised, blamed
in vituperationem, reprehensionem cadere, incidere, venireto suffer reproof; to be criticised, blamed
exprobrare alicui aliquidto reproach a person with..
aliquid alicui crimini dare, vertereto reproach a person with..
conqueri, expostulare cum aliquo de aliqua reto expostulate with a person about a thing
rumor, fama, sermo est or manatreport says; people say
rumor, fama vigeta rumour is prevalent
fama serpit (per urbem)a report is spreading imperceptibly
rumor increbrescita report, an impression is gaining ground
rumorem spargereto spread a rumour
famam dissipareto spread a rumour
dubii rumores afferuntur ad nosvague rumours reach us
auditione et fama accepisse aliquidto know from hearsay
fando aliquid audivisseto know from hearsay
ex eo audivi, cum diceretI heard him say..
vulgo dicitur, pervulgatum estevery one says
in ore omnium or omnibus (hominum or hominibus, but only mihi, tibi, etc.) esseto be in every one's mouth
per omnium ora ferrito be in every one's mouth
in ore habere aliquid (Fam. 6. 18. 5)to harp on a thing, be always talking of it
efferre or edere aliquid in vulgusto divulge, make public
foras efferri, palam fieri, percrebrescere, divulgari, in medium proferri, exire, emanareto become known, become a topic of common conversation (used of things)
in sermonem hominum venireto be a subject for gossip
in ora vulgi abireto be a subject for gossip
fabulam fierito be the talk of the town, a scandal
nuntio allato or acceptoon receiving the news
Romam nuntiatum est, allatum estnews reached Rome
certiorem facere aliquem (alicuius rei or de aliqua re)to inform a person
mentionem facere alicuius rei or de aliqua reto mention a thing
mentionem inicere de aliqua re or Acc. c. Inf.to mention a thing incidentally, casually
in mentionem alicuius rei incidereto mention a thing incidentally, casually
mentio alicuius rei inciditto mention a thing incidentally, casually
gloriam, famam sibi comparareto gain distinction
gloriam (immortalem) consequi, adipiscito win (undying) fame
gloriae, laudi esseto confer distinction on a person; to redound to his credit
laudem afferreto confer distinction on a person; to redound to his credit
gloria, laude florereto be very famous, illustrious
summa gloria florereto have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence
clarum fieri, nobilitari, illustrari (not the post-classical clarescere or inclarescereto become famous, distinguish oneself
gloriam colligere, in summam gloriam venireto become famous, distinguish oneself
aliquem immortali gloria afficereto confer undying fame on, immortalise some one
aliquem sempiternae gloriae commendareto confer undying fame on, immortalise some one
immortalitatem consequi, adipisci, sibi parereto attain eternal renown
gloria ducito be guided by ambition
laudis studio trahito be guided by ambition
laudem, gloriam quaerereto be guided by ambition
stimulis gloriae concitarito be spurred on by ambition
gloriae, laudis cupiditate incensum esse, flagrareto be consumed by the fires of ambition
de gloria, fama alicuius detrahereto detract from a person's reputation, wilfully underestimate a person
alicuius gloriae or simply alicui obtrectareto detract from a person's reputation, wilfully underestimate a person
alicuius famam, laudem imminuereto detract from a person's reputation, wilfully underestimate a person
obscurare alicuius gloriam, laudem, famam (not obscurare aliquem)to render obscure, eclipse a person
famae servire, consulereto have regard for one's good name
famam ante collectam tueri, conservareto live up to one's reputation
bene, male audire (ab aliquo)to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of
bona, mala existimatio est de aliquoto have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of
famam crudelitatis subire (Catil. 4. 6. 12)to gain the reputation of cruelty
infamiam alicui inferre, aspergereto damage a person's character, bring him into bad odour
infamem facere aliquemto damage a person's character, bring him into bad odour
magnam sui famam relinquereto leave a great reputation behind one
opinionem virtutis habereto have the reputation of virtue
existimatio hominum, omniumthe common opinion, the general idea
esse in honore apud aliquemto be honoured, esteemed by some one
honorem alicui habere, tribuereto honour, show respect for, a person
aliquem honore afficere, augere, ornare, prosequi (vid. sect. VI. 11., note Prosequi...)to honour, show respect for, a person
aliquem cupiditate honorum inflammare (or aliquem ad cupiditatem honorum inflammare)to kindle ambition in some one's mind
honores concupiscere (opp. aspernari)to aspire to dignity, high honours
honoris causa aliquem nominare or appellareto speak of some one respectfully
statuam alicui ponere, constituereto set up a statue in some one's honour
aliquem colere et observare (Att. 2. 19)to pay respect to, be courteous to a person
aliquem ignominia afficere, notareto inflict an indignity upon, insult a person
alicui ignominiam inurereto inflict an indignity upon, insult a person
infamiam concipere, subire, sibi conflareto incur ignominy
vitae splendori(em) maculas(is) aspergereto sully one's fair fame
notam turpitudinis alicui or vitae alicuius inurereto injure a man's character, tarnish his honour
ignominiam non ferreto chafe under an indignity, repudiate it
maculam (conceptam) delere, eluereto blot out a reproach
studiose (diligenter, enixe, sedulo, maxime) dare operam, ut...to take great pains in order to..
egregiam operam (multum, plus etc. operae) dare alicui reito expend great labour on a thing
operam alicui rei tribuere, in aliquid conferreto expend great labour on a thing
operam (laborem, curam) in or ad aliquid impendereto expend great labour on a thing
multum operae ac laboris consumere in aliqua reto exert oneself very energetically in a matter
studium, industriam (not diligentiam) collocare, ponere in aliqua reto apply oneself zealously, diligently to a thing
incumbere in (ad) aliquidto be energetic about, throw one's heart into a thing
opus facere (De Senect. 7. 24)to do work (especially agricultural)
opus aggredito take a task in hand, engage upon it
ad opus faciendum accedereto take a task in hand, engage upon it
res est multi laboris et sudoristhe matter involves much labour and fatigue
desudare et elaborare in aliqua re (De Senect. 11. 38)to exert oneself very considerably in a matter
labori, operae non parcereto spare no pains
laborem non intermittereto work without intermission
nullum tempus a labore intermitterenot to leave off work for an instant
lucubrare (Liv. 1. 57)to work by night, burn the midnight oil
inanem laborem suscipereto lose one's labour
operam (et oleum) perdere or frustra consumereto lose one's labour
rem actam or simply actum agere (proverb.)to have all one's trouble for nothing
labore supersedēre (itineris) (Fam. 4. 2. 4)to spare oneself the trouble of the voyage
patiens laboriscapable of exertion
fugiens laborislazy
operae pretium est (c. Inf.)it is worth while
acti labores iucundi (proverb.)rest after toil is sweet
contentionem adhibereto exert oneself
omnes nervos in aliqua re contendereto strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter
omnibus viribusor nervis contendere, utto strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter
omni ope atque opera or omni virium contentione eniti, utto strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter
contendere et laborare, utto strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter
pro viribus eniti et laborare, utto strain every nerve, do one's utmost in a matter
negotium suscipereto undertake an affair
negotium obire, exsequito execute, manage a business, undertaking
negotium conficere, expedire, transigereto arrange, settle a matter
negotia agere, gerereto be occupied with business, busy
multis negotiis implicatum, districtum, distentum, obrutum esseto be involved in many undertakings; to be much occupied, embarrassed, overwhelmed by business-claims
negotiis vacareto be free from business
occupatum esse in aliqua reto be engaged upon a matter
intentum esse alicui reito be engaged upon a matter
negotium alicui facessere (Fam. 3. 10. 1)to give a person trouble, inconvenience him
magnum negotium est c. Inf.it is a great undertaking to..
nullo negotiowithout any trouble
otiosum esseto be at leisure
in otio esse or vivereto be at leisure
otium habereto be at leisure
otio fruito be at leisure
otio abundareto have abundance of leisure
otium sequi, amplexarito be a lover of ease, leisure
otiosum tempus consumere in aliqua reto spend one's leisure hours on an object
otio abūti or otium ad suum usum transferreto use up, make full use of one's spare time
(in) otio languere et hebescereto grow slack with inactivity, stagnate
otio diffluereto grow slack with inactivity, stagnate
desidiae et languori se dedereto abandon oneself to inactivity and apathy
ignaviae et socordiae se dareto abandon oneself to inactivity and apathy
per luxum et ignaviam aetatem agereto pass one's life in luxury and idleness
voluptatem ex aliqua re capere or percipereto derive pleasure from a thing
voluptate perfundito revel in pleasure, be blissfully happy
voluptatibus fruito take one's fill of enjoyment
voluptates haurireto take one's fill of enjoyment
se totum voluptatibus dedere, tradereto devote oneself absolutely to the pursuit of pleasure
homo voluptarius (Tusc. 2. 7. 18)a devotee of pleasure; a self-indulgent man
voluptatis illecebris delenirito be led astray, corrupted by the allurements of pleasure
voluptatis blanditiis corrumpito be led astray, corrupted by the allurements of pleasure
in voluptates se mergereto plunge into a life of pleasure
animum a voluptate sevocareto hold aloof from all amusement
voluptates (corporis)sensual pleasure
voluptatis or animi causa (B. G. 5. 12)for one's own diversion; to satisfy a whim
deliciis diffluereto wanton in the pleasures of sense
animum relaxare, reficere, recreare or simply se reficere, se recreare, refici, recreari (ex aliqua re)to recruit oneself, seek relaxation
animum or simply se remittereto indulge oneself
animo or simply sibi indulgereto indulge oneself
magno animo esseto be magnanimous, broad-minded
animum attendere ad aliquidto turn one's attention to a thing
diligenter attendere (aliquid)to attend carefully
alias res or aliud agereto be inattentive
animo adesse(1) to be attentive; (2) to keep one's presence of mind
vir magno ingenio, ingeniosusa man of ability
vir magno ingenio praeditusa man of ability
ingenio valereto be talented, gifted
ingenio abundareto be very talented
natura et ingeniumnatural gifts
ingenium acuereto sharpen the wits
ingenii acumenpenetration; sagacity
ingenii tarditas (opp. celeritas)dulness of intellect
ingenii infirmitas or imbecillitasweakmindedness
mentis compotem esseto be of sane mind
mente captum esse, mente alienata esseto be out of one's mind
sanae mentis esseto be of sound mind
mentis quasi luminibus officere (vid. sect. XIII. 6) or animo caliginem offundereto obscure the mental vision
intellegentia or mente multum valereto possess great ability
ad intellegentiam communem or popularem accommodare aliquidto accommodate something to the standard of the popular intelligence
animo, cogitatione aliquid fingere (or simply fingere, but without sibi), informareto form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive
animo concipere aliquidto form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive
animo, cogitatione aliquid praecipere (Off 1. 23. 81)to form a conception of a thing beforehand
cogitatione sibi aliquid depingereto picture to oneself
ingenium, cogitatioimagination
ingenii vis or celeritasvivid, lively imagination
rerum imaginescreatures of the imagination
res cogitatione fictae or depictaecreatures of the imagination
opinionum commenta, ineptiae, monstra, portentaextravagant fictions of fancy
animo, mente, cogitatione aliquid comprehendere, complectito grasp a thing mentally
in eam cogitationem incidereto happen to think of..
haec cogitatio subit animuman idea strikes me
illud succurrit mihian idea strikes me
mihi in mentem venit alicuius reisomething comes into my mind
aliquid animo meo obversatur (cf. sect. III, s. v. oculi)a vague notion presents itself to my mind
aliquem ad eam cogitationem adducere utto induce a person to think that..
alicuius animum ab aliqua re abducereto draw away some one's attention from a thing
cogitationem, animum in aliquid intendere (Acad. 4. 46)to direct one's attention..
omnes cogitationes ad aliquid conferreto give all one's attention to a thing
mentem in aliqua re defigereto fix all one's thoughts on an object
in cogitatione defixum esseto be deep in thought
cogitationes in res humiles abicere (De Amic. 9. 32) (Opp. alte spectare, ad altiora tendere, altum, magnificum, divinum suspicere)to study the commonplace
notiones animo (menti) insitae, innataeinnate ideas
intellegentiae adumbratae or incohatae (De Leg. 1. 22. 59)vague, undeveloped ideas
notionem or rationem alicuius rei in animo informare or animo concipereto form a conception, notion of a thing
absolutus et perfectusabsolutely perfect
omnibus numeris absolutus (N. D. 2. 13)perfect in every detail
ad summum perducereto bring to the highest perfection
perficere et absolvereto bring to the highest perfection
ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenireto attain perfection
absolutio et perfectio (not summa perfectio)ideal perfection
cogitatione, non reideally, not really
undique expleta et perfecta formaan ideal
species optima or eximia, specimen, also simply species, formaan ideal
comprehensam quandam animo speciem (alicuius rei) habereto have formed an ideal notion of a thing
singularem quandam perfectionis imaginem animo concipereto conceive an ideal
imaginem perfecti oratoris adumbrareto sketch the ideal of an orator
civitas optima, perfecta PlatonisPlato's ideal republic
illa civitas Platonis commenticiaPlato's ideal republic
illa civitas, quam Plato finxitPlato's ideal republic
in sententia manere, permanere, perseverare, perstareto abide by, persist in one's opinion
illud, hoc teneoI abide by this opinion
a sententia sua discedereto give up one's opinion
de sententia sua decedereto give up one's opinion
(de) sententia desistereto give up one's opinion
de sententia deici, depelli, deterrerito be forced to change one's mind
de sententia aliquem deducere, movereto make a man change his opinion
aliquem ad suam sententiam perducere or in suam sententiam adducereto win a man over to one's own way of thinking
ad alicuius sententiam accedere, sententiam alicuius sequito adopt some one's opinion
idem sentire (opp. dissentire ab aliquo)to hold the same views
sententiam suam aperireto freely express one's opinions
sententiam fronte celare, tegerenot to betray one's feelings by one's looks
dic quid sentiasgive me your opinion
in hac sum sententia, ut...putemI think that..
plura in eam sententiam disputareto discuss a subject more fully on the same lines
ut mea fert opinioaccording to my opinion
ut mihi quidem videturaccording to my opinion
mea (quidem) sententiaaccording to my opinion
quot homines, tot sententiaemany men, many minds
opiniones falsas animo imbibereto be imbibing false opinions
opinionibus falsis imbuito be imbibing false opinions
opinionis errorerroneous opinion
opinio praeiudicata, also simply opinio (not praeiudicium = a preliminary decision)prejudice
opinio confirmata, inveterataa rooted opinion
opinionum pravitate inficito be filled with absurd prejudices
opinionum commenta (N. D. 2. 2. 5)chimeras
monstra or portentamarvellous ideas; prodigies
coniectura assequi, consequi, aliquid coniectura colligereto conjecture
quantum ego coniectura assequor, auguroras far as I can guess
coniecturam alicuius rei facere or capere ex aliqua reto infer by comparison, judge one thing by another
de se (ex se de aliis) coniecturam facereto judge others by oneself
aliquid in coniectura positum estit is a matter of conjecture, supposition
aliquid coniectura nititur, continetur (Div. 1. 14. 24)it is a matter of conjecture, supposition
probabilia coniectura sequito try to conjecture probabilities
aliquid mihi nec opinanti, insperanti accidita thing has happened contrary to my expectation
verum dicere, profiterito speak the truth, admit the truth
omnia ad veritatem dicereto be truthful in all one's statements
veritatis amans, diligens, studiosustruthful; veracious
a vero aversum esse (Catil. 3. 1. 29)to be averse to truth
a veritate deflectere, desciscereto swerve from the truth
veri videndi, investigandi cupiditaslove of truth
veri inquisitio atque investigatiozealous pursuit of truth
a vero abducito be led away from the truth
proxime ad verum accedereto be very near the truth
a vero non abhorrereto be probable
veri simile esseto be probable
haec speciosiora quam veriora suntthis is more plausible than true
vera et falsa (a falsis) diiudicareto distinguish true and false
vera cum falsis confundereto confuse true with false
veritasveracity
re (vera), reapse (opp. specie)in truth; really
in errore versarito be mistaken
magno errore tenerito be in gross error, seriously misled
in magno errore versarito be in gross error, seriously misled
vehementer errareto be in gross error, seriously misled
erroribus implicari (Tusc. 4. 27. 58)to fall into error
per errorem labi, or simply labito take a false step
aliquem in errorem inducere, rapereto lead a person into error
errorem animo imbibereto get a mistaken notion into the mind
errorem cum lacte nutricis sugere (Tusc. 3. 1. 2)to imbibe error from one's mother's breasts
error longe lateque diffususa wide-spread error
errorem tollereto banish an error, do away with a false impression
errorem amputare et circumcīdereto banish an error, do away with a false impression
errorem stirpitus extrahereto totally eradicate false principles
errorem deponere, corrigereto amend, correct one's mistake
alicui errorem demere, eripere, extorquereto undeceive a person
nisi fallorif I am not mistaken
nisi (animus) me fallitif I am not mistaken
nisi omnia me falluntunless I'm greatly mistaken
optionem alicui dare (Acad. 2. 7. 19)to give a person his choice
optionem alicui dare, utrum...anto offer a person the alternative of... or..
in dubium vocareto throw doubt upon a thing
in dubio ponereto throw doubt upon a thing
in dubium venireto become doubtful
quod aliquam (magnam) dubitationem habet (Leg. Agr. 1. 4. 11)a thing which is rather (very) dubious
dubitatio mihi affertur, inicitura doubt arises in my mind
dubitationem alicui tollereto relieve a person of his doubts
aliquid in medio, in dubio relinquere (Cael. 20. 48)to leave a thing undecided
aliquid dubium, incertum relinquereto leave a thing undecided
sine dubio (not sine ullo dubio)without doubt, beyond all doubt
sine ulla dubitationewithout any hesitation; without the least scruple
scrupulum ex animo alicuius evellere (Rosc. Am. 2. 6)to relieve a man of his scruple
unus mihi restat scrupulus (Ter. Andr. 5. 4. 37) (cf. too religio, sect. XI. 2)one thing still makes me hesitate
certo (certe) scio (Arch. 12. 32)I know for a fact
probe scio, non ignoroI know very well
non sum ignarus, nescius (not non sum inscius)I know very well
me non fugit, praeteritI am not unaware
quantum scioas far as I know
quod sciamas far as I know
hoc (not tantum) certum estthis much is certain
aliquid compertum habereto know a thing for certain
illud pro certo affirmare licetthis much I can vouch for
mihi exploratum est, exploratum (certum) habeoI am quite certain on the point
inter omnes constatit is a recognised fact
mihi persuasum estI am persuaded, convinced
mihi persuasiI am persuaded, convinced
sic habetoconvince yourself of this; rest assured on this point
persuade tibiconvince yourself of this; rest assured on this point
velim tibi ita persuadeasconvince yourself of this; rest assured on this point
sic volo te tibi persuadereconvince yourself of this; rest assured on this point
addūcor, ut credamI am gradually convinced that..
non possum adduci, ut (credam)I cannot make myself believe that..
ex animi mei sententia (vid. sect. XI. 2)according to my strong conviction
suo iudicio utito act in accordance with one's convictions
consilium capere, inire (de aliqua re, with Gen. gerund., with Inf., more rarely ut)to form a plan, make a resolution
consilio desistereto give up a project, an intention
consilium abicere or deponereto let a plan fall through
a consilio deterreri aliqua reto be deterred from one's intention by something
mediocribus consiliis utito adopt half-measures
consilium, sententiam mutareto alter one's views, intentions
suo consilio utito go one's own way, proceed independently
magna molirito be busy with ambitious projects
consilia cum aliquo communicare(1) to communicate one's plans to some one; (2) to make common cause with a person. Similarly c. causam, rationem
consilia inter se communicareto take common counsel
aliquem in or ad consilium adhibereto consult a person, take his advice
consilium habere (de aliqua re)to deliberate together (of a number of people)
consultare or deliberare (de aliqua re)to deliberate, consider (of individuals)
consiliis arcanis interesse (Liv. 35. 18)to be present at secret consultations
consilium dare alicuito give a person advice
auctorem esse alicui, utto give a person advice
aliquem consilio (et re) iuvareto give a person the advantage of one's advice (and actual support)
consilii mei copiam facio tibiI put myself at your disposal as regards advice
consilium petere ab aliquoto apply to a person for advice
consilii inopem esseto be perplexed
omnia consilia frigent (Verr. 2. 25)advice is useless in this case; the situation is very embarrassing
nullo consilio, nulla ratione, temerewithout reflection; inconsiderately; rashly
secum (cum animo) reputare aliquidto think over, consider a thing
considerare in, cum animo, secum aliquidto think over, consider a thing
agitare (in) mente or (in) animo aliquidto think over, consider a thing
aliquid cadit in deliberationem (Off. 1. 3. 9)a subject becomes matter for reflection
re diligenter considerata, perpensaafter mature deliberation
omnibus rebus circumspectisafter mature deliberation
inita subductaque rationeafter mature deliberation
in animo habeo or mihi est in animo c. Inf.I am resolved; it is my intention
certum (mihi) estI am determined
certum deliberatumque estI am firmly resolved
stat mihi sententia (Liv. 21. 30.)I am firmly resolved
incertus sum, quid consilii capiamI am undecided..
mihi non constat (with indirect question)I have not made up my mind
propositum est mihi c. Inf.I intend, propose to..
propositum, consilium tenere (opp. a proposito deterreri)to abide by one's resolution
propositum assequi, peragereto carry out one's plan
magna sibi proponere or magna spectareto have a high object in view; to be ambitious
in incepto or conatu perstareto persevere in one's resolve
in proposito susceptoque consilio permanereto persevere in one's resolve
incepto or conatu desistereto give up one's project
parare aliquidto take measures for..
animum inducere c. Inf. (not in animum inducere)to persuade oneself to..
a me impetrare non possum, utI cannot bring myself to..
descendere ad aliquid, ad omnia (vid. sect. V. 9, note Similarly descendere...)to consent to..., lend oneself to..
descendere ad extrema consilia (Fam. 10. 33. 4)to have recourse to extreme measures
consilium est c. Inf. or utmy intention is..
id sequor, utmy intention is..
spectare aliquid or ad aliquidto have an object in view
res eo spectat, utthe matter tends towards..., has this object
res spectat ad vim (arma)there seems a prospect of armed violence; things look like violence
id quod voluit consecutus esthe attained his object
ad id quod voluit pervenithe attained his object
quid tibi vis?what do you mean to do?
quid hoc sibi vult?what is the meaning of this?
quid hoc rei est?what is the meaning of this?
eo consilio, ea mente, utwith the intention of..
de industria, dedita opera (opp. imprudens)designedly; intentionally
ad id ipsumwith this very object
infecta re (Liv. 9. 32)to no purpose; ineffectually
moram alicui rei afferre, inferre, facereto retard, delay a thing
in mora alicui esseto detain a person
nullam moram interponere, quin (Phil. 10. 1. 1)to make all possible haste to..
sine mora or nulla mora interpositawithout delay
diem ex die ducere, differreto put off from one day to another
memoriā tenere aliquidto remember a thing perfectly
memoriam alicuius rei tenereto remember a thing perfectly
recenti memoria tenere aliquidto have a vivid recollection of a thing
memoriā (multum) valere (opp. memoriā vacillare)to have a good memory
memorem esse (opp. obliviosum esse)to have a good memory
memoria tanta fuit, uthe had such an extraordinary memory that..
memoriā labito make a slip of the memory
memoriae mandare aliquidto impress on the memory
ex memoria (opp. de scripto)from memory; by heart
memoriter(1) with good memory; (2) from personal recollection
memoria custodireto keep in mind
memoriam alicuius rei renovare, revocare (redintegrare)to recall a thing to one's recollection
memoriam alicuius rei repetereto recall to mind a thing or person
in memoriam alicuius redireto recall to mind a thing or person
in memoriam alicuius redigere, reducere aliquid (not revocare)to recall a thing to a person's mind
memoria et recordatiovivid recollection
grata memoria aliquem prosequito show a thankful appreciation of a person's kindness
nomen alicuius grato animo prosequito think of a person with a grateful sense of his goodness
memoriam alicuius rei repraesentare (opp. memoriam alicuius rei deponere, abicere)to picture to oneself again
memoriam alicuius rei conservare, retinereto retain the recollection of a thing
memoriam alicuius pie inviolateque servareto show an affectionate regard for a person's memory
gratam (gratissimam) alicuius memoriam retinereto retain a (most) pleasant impression of a person
numquam ex animo meo memoria illius rei discedetthe memory of this will never fade from my mind
aliquid in memoria nostra penitus insideta thing has been vividly impressed on our[TR1] memory
memoriam eius nulla umquam delebit (obscurabit) oblivio (Fam. 2. 1)nothing will ever make me forgetful of him
semper memoria eius in (omnium) mentibus haerebitnothing will ever make me forgetful of him
nomen suum posteritati aliqua re commendare, propagare, prodereto win renown amongst posterity by some act
memoriam nominis sui immortalitati tradere, mandare, commendareto immortalise one's name
post hominum memoriamwithin the memory of man
post homines natoswithin the memory of man
memoriae causa, ad (not in) memoriam (Brut. 16. 62)in memory of..
oblivio alicuius rei me capitI forget something
aliquem in oblivionem alicuius rei adducere (pass. in oblivionem venire)to make a person forget a thing
aliquid excidit e memoria, effluit, excidit ex animoa thing escapes, vanishes from the memory
memoria alicuius rei excidit, abiit, abolevitthe recollection of a thing has been entirely lost
obliterari (Liv. 26. 41)to be forgotten, pass into oblivion
memoria alicuius rei obscuratur, obliteratur, evanescitto be forgotten, pass into oblivion
oblivioni esse, darito be forgotten, pass into oblivion
in oblivionem adducito be forgotten, pass into oblivion
oblivione obrui, deleri, exstinguito be forgotten, pass into oblivion
in oblivione iacēre (of persons)to be forgotten, pass into oblivion
aliquid ab oblivione vindicareto rescue from oblivion
mementote with Acc. c. Inf.do not forget
ratione, doctrina (opp. usu) aliquid cognitum habereto have a theoretical knowledge of a thing
ad artem, ad rationem revocare aliquid (De Or. 2. 11. 44)to reduce a thing to its theoretical principles; to apply theory to a thing
doctrinam ad usum adiungereto combine theory with practice
in rebus atque in usu versatum esseto have had practical experience
usu praeditum esseto possess experience
magnum usum in aliqua re habereto have had great experience in a thing
multarum rerum ususvaried, manifold experience
usu rerum (vitae, vitae communis) edocti sumuswe know from experience
experti scimus, didicimuswe know from experience
usu cognitum habemuswe know from experience
res ipsa, usus rerum (cotidie) doceteveryday experience tells us this
(rerum) imperitum esseto have had no experience of the world
multa acerba expertus esthe has had many painful experiences
usus me docuitexperience has taught me
optima studia, bonae, optimae, liberales, ingenuae artes, disciplinaethe sciences; the fine arts
litterarum studium or tractatio (not occupatio)the study of belles-lettres; literary pursuits
homines litterarum studiosilearned, scientific, literary men
homines doctilearned, scientific, literary men
artium studia or artes vigent (not florent)learning, scientific knowledge is flourishing
litterae iacent, neglectae iacentscholarship, culture, literature is at a low ebb
litteras colereto be engaged in the pursuit of letters
litteras amplectito be an enthusiastic devotee of letters
litteras adamasse (only in perf. and plup.)to be an enthusiastic devotee of letters
in studio litterarum versarito be engaged in literary pursuits
in aliquo litterarum genere versarito be engaged in any branch of study
summo studio in litteris versarito be an ardent student of..
se totum litteris tradere, dedereto devote oneself entirely to literature
se totum in litteras or se litteris abdereto be quite engrossed in literary studies
in litteris elaborare (De Sen. 8. 26)to apply oneself very closely to literary, scientific work
in litteris acquiescere or conquiescereto find recreation in study
aetatem in litteris ducere, agereto devote one's life to science, study
omne (otiosum) tempus in litteris consumereto devote all one's leisure moments to study
omne studium in litteris collocare, ad litteras conferreto employ all one's energies on literary work
optimarum artium studio incensum esseto be interested in, have a taste for culture
litterarum studio trahito feel an attraction for study
trahi, ferri ad litterasto feel an attraction for study
litterarum studia remittereto relax one's studies
intermissa studia revocareto resume one's studies
primis (ut dicitur) or primoribus labris gustare or attingere litterasto have a superficial knowledge, a smattering of literature, of the sciences
litteraeliterature
litterae ac monumenta or simply monumentawritten records; documents
litterae latinaeRoman literature
clarissima litterarum luminashining lights in the literary world
graecis litteris studereto study Greek literature
multum (mediocriter) in graecis litteris versarito be well (slightly) acquainted with Greek literature
vir or homo doctus, litteratusa man of learning; a scholar; a savant
vir doctissimusa great scholar
vir perfecte planeque eruditusa man of profound erudition
vir omni doctrina eruditusa man perfect in all branches of learning
multi viri docti, or multi et ii docti (not multi docti)many learned men; many scholars
omnes docti, quivis doctus, doctissimus quisqueall learned men
nemo doctusno man of learning
nemo mediocriter doctusno one with any pretence to education
latinis litteris or latine doctusacquainted with the Latin language
bene latine doctus or sciensa good Latin scholar
doctrina abundare (De Or. 3. 16. 59)to be a man of great learning
a doctrina mediocriter instructum esseto have received only a moderate education
doctrina exquisita, subtilis, eleganssound knowledge; scholarship
doctrina reconditaprofound erudition
studia, quae in reconditis artibus versantur (De Or. 1. 2. 8)abstruse studies
magnam doctrinae speciem prae se ferreto pass as a man of great learning
vita umbratilis (vid. sect. VII. 4)the contemplative life of a student
litterarum scientiam (only in sing.) habereto possess literary knowledge
scientiam alicuius rei consequito acquire knowledge of a subject
scientia comprehendere aliquidto acquire knowledge of a subject
penitus percipere et comprehendere aliquid (De Or. 1. 23. 108)to have a thorough grasp of a subject
scientia augere aliquemto enrich a person's knowledge
multa cognita, percepta habere, multa didicisseto be well-informed, erudite
multarum rerum cognitione imbutum esse (opp. litterarum or eruditionis expertem esse or \[rerum\] rudem esse)to be well-informed, erudite
animum, ingenium excolere (not colere)to cultivate the mind
animi, ingenii cultus (not cultura)mental culture
optimis studiis or artibus, optimarum artium studiis eruditum esseto have received a liberal education
litteras scireto have received a liberal education
litterae interiores et reconditae, artes reconditaeprofound scientific education
sunt in illo, ut in homine Romano, multae litterae (De Sen. 4. 12)for a Roman he is decidedly well educated
litteris leviter imbutum or tinctum esseto have received a superficial education
omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse (Brut. 25. 95)to have attained to a high degree of culture
omnis cultus et humanitatis expertem esseto be quite uncivilised
ab omni cultu et humanitate longe abesse (B. G. 1. 1. 3)to be quite uncivilised
homines, gentem a fera agrestique vita ad humanum cultum civilemque deducere (De Or. 1. 8. 33)to civilise men, a nation
liberaliter, ingenue, bene educarito receive a liberal education
severa disciplina continerito be brought up under strict discipline
aliquem ad humanitatem informare or instituereto teach a person refinement
mores alicuius corrigereto improve a person
in viam reducere aliquemto bring a person back to the right way
in viam redireto return to the right way
litteras discere ab aliquoto be educated by some one
institui or erudiri ab aliquoto receive instruction from some one
disciplina alicuius uti, magistro aliquo utito receive instruction from some one
e disciplina alicuius profectum esseto be brought up in some one's school
puerum alicui erudiendum or in disciplinam tradereto entrust a child to the tuition of..
operam dare or simply se dare alicui, se tradere in disciplinam alicuius, se conferre, se applicare ad aliquemto become a pupil, disciple of some one
multum esse cum aliquo (Fam. 16. 21)to enjoy close intercourse with... (of master and pupil)
ludus (discendi or litterarum)an elementary school
scholaa school for higher education
scholam frequentareto go to a school
disciplina (institutio) puerilis (not liberorum)the teaching of children
pueros elementa (prima) docereto teach children the rudiments
primis litterarum elementis imbuito receive the first elements of a liberal education
doctrinae, quibus aetas puerilis impertiri solet (Nep. Att. 1. 2)the usual subjects taught to boys
artes, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem informari soletthe usual subjects taught to boys
erudire aliquem artibus, litteris (but erudire aliquem in iure civili, in re militari)to teach some one letters
natum, factum esse ad aliquid (faciendum)to be born for a thing, endowed by nature for it
adversante et repugnante natura or invitā Minervā (ut aiunt) aliquid facere (Off. 1. 31. 110)to do a thing which is not one's vocation, which goes against the grain
crassa or pingui Minerva (proverb.)with no intelligence or skill
calcaria alicui adhibere, admovere; stimulos alicui admovereto spur, urge a person on
frenos adhibere alicuito restrain some one
bona indole (always in sing.) praeditum esseto be gifted, talented (not praeditum esse by itself)
ingenio valereto be gifted, talented
summo ingenio praeditum esseto possess rich mental endowments
in aliqua re progressus facere, proficere, progredito make progress in a subject
aliquid efficere, consequi in aliqua re (De Or. 1. 33. 152)to obtain a result in something
adulescens alios bene de se sperare iubet, bonam spem ostendit or alii de adulescente bene sperare possunthe is a young man of great promise
adulescens bonae (egregiae) speia promising youth
magna est exspectatio ingenii tuiwe expect a great deal from a man of your calibre
desudare in scholae umbra or umbraculisto exert oneself in the schools
genus vitae (vivendi) or aetatis degendae deligereto choose a career, profession
viam vitae ingredi (Flacc. 42. 105)to enter upon a career
philosophiam, medicinam profiterito be a philosopher, physician by profession
se philosophum, medicum (esse) profiterito be a philosopher, physician by profession
qui ista profitenturmen of that profession
exemplum clarum, praeclaruma good, brilliant example; a striking example
exemplum luculentuma good, brilliant example; a striking example
exemplum illustrea good, brilliant example; a striking example
exemplum magnum, grandea weighty example, precedent
exemplum afferreto quote an example
exemplo utito quote an example
aliquem (aliquid) exempli causa ponere, proferre, nominare, commemorareto cite a person or a thing as an example
aliquid exemplis probare, comprobare, confirmareto quote precedents for a thing
aliquid exemplis ostendereto demonstrate by instances
exempla petere, repetere a rerum gestarum memoria or historiarum (annalium, rerum gestarum) monumentisto borrow instances from history
exempla a rerum Romanarum (Graecarum) memoria petitaexamples taken from Roman (Greek) history
multa exempla in unum (locum) colligereto collect, accumulate instances
ex infinita exemplorum copia unum (pauca) sumere, decerpere (eligere)to choose one from a large number of instances
a Socrate exemplum virtutis petere, repetereto quote Socrates as a model of virtue
similitudines afferreto cite parallel cases
auctore aliquo uti ad aliquidto have as authority for a thing
auctorem aliquem habere alicuius reito have as authority for a thing
auctoritatem alicuius sequito be guided by another's example
auctoritas et exemplum (Balb. 13. 31)standard and pattern
sibi exemplum alicuius proponere ad imitandum or simply sibi aliquem ad imitandum proponereto set up some one as one's ideal, model
sibi exemplum sumere ex aliquo or exemplum capere de aliquoto take a lesson from some one's example
ad exemplum alicuius se conformareto shape one's conduct after another's model
exemplum edere, prodereto set an example
exemplo esseto set an example
exemplum in aliquo or in aliquem statuereto inflict an exemplary punishment on some one
exemplum (severitatis) edere in aliquo (Q. Fr. 1. 2. 2. 5)to inflict an exemplary punishment on some one
bene (male) praecipere alicuito inculcate good (bad) principles
praecepta dare, tradere de aliqua reto give advice, directions, about a matter
ad praecipiendi rationem delābi (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 6. 18)to adopt a didactic tone
aliquid in animo haeret, penitus insedit or infixum esta thing is deeply impressed on the mind
aliquid animo mentique penitus mandare (Catil. 1. 11. 27)to impress a thing on one's memory, mind
demittere aliquid in pectus or in pectus animumque suumto take a thing to heart
hoc verbum alte descendit in pectus alicuiuswhat he said made a deep impression on..
se conferre ad philosophiam, ad philosophiae or sapientiae studium (Fam. 4. 3. 4)to devote oneself to philosophy
animum appellere or se applicare ad philosophiamto apply oneself to the study of philosophy
philosophiae (sapientiae) studio teneri (Acad. 1. 2. 4)to be enamoured of philosophy
in portum philosophiae confugereto take refuge in philosophy
in sinum philosophiae compellito be driven into the arms of philosophy
philosophia (neglecta) iacet (vid. sect. VII. 1, note iacēre...)philosophy is neglected, at low ebb
philosophiam latinis litteris illustrare (Acad. 1. 1. 3)to write expositions of philosophy in Latin
Ciceronis de philosophia libriCicero's philosophical writings
decreta, inventa philosophorumthe tenets, dogmas of philosophers
quae in philosophia tractanturphilosophical subjects
praecepta philosophorum (penitus) percepta habereto be well acquainted with the views of philosophers
illae sententiae evanueruntthose views are out of date
illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt (Fin. 5. 8. 23)those ideas have long ago been given up
schola, disciplina, familia; sectaa sect, school of thought
sectam alicuius sequi (Brut. 31. 120)to be a follower, disciple of some one
disciplinam alicuius profiterito be a follower, disciple of some one
qui sunt a Platone or a Platonis disciplina; qui profecti sunt a Platone; Platonicidisciples of Plato, Platonists
Solo, unus de septem (illis)Solon, one of the seven sages
Pythagorae doctrina longe lateque fluxit (Tusc. 4. 1. 2)Pythagoras' principles were widely propagated
scholas habere, explicare (Fin. 2. 1. 1)to give lectures
scholis interesseto attend lectures
tradere (aliquid de aliqua re)to teach
audire Platonem, auditorem esse Platonisto attend Plato's lectures
physica (-orum) (Or. 34. 119); philosophia naturalisphysics; natural philosophy
dialectica (-ae or -orum) (pure Latin disserendi ratio et scientia)logic, dialectic
disserendi praecepta tradereto teach logic
disserendi elegantialogical minuteness, precision
disserendi subtilitas (De Or. 1. 1. 68)dialectical nicety
disserendi spinae (Fin. 4. 28. 79)subtleties of logic; dilemmas
disserendi peritus et artifexan accomplished dialectician
homo in dialecticis versatissimusan accomplished dialectician
disserendi artem nullam habereto know nothing of logic
dialecticis ne imbutum quidem esseto be ignorant of even the elements of logic
ratione, eleganter (opp. nulla ratione, ineleganter, confuse) disponere aliquidto arrange on strictly logical principles
philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus (Acad. 1. 5. 19)moral science; ethics
philosophia, in qua de bonis rebus et malis, deque hominum vita et moribus disputaturmoral science; ethics
philosophia, quae in rerum contemplatione versatur, or quae artis praeceptis contineturtheoretical, speculative philosophy
philosophia, quae in actione versaturpractical philosophy
omnes philosophiae locithe whole domain of philosophy
ratio; disciplina, ratio et disciplina; arssystem
ad artem redigere aliquidto systematise
ad rationem, ad artem et praecepta revocare aliquid (De Or. 1. 41)to systematise
arte conclusum esseto have been reduced to a system
ratio et doctrinasystematic, methodical knowledge
artificio et via tradere aliquidto give a scientific explanation of a thing
artificiose redigere aliquidto treat with scientific exactness; to classify
ad rationis praecepta accommodare aliquidto treat with scientific exactness; to classify
totam rationem evertere (pass. iacet tota ratio)to upset the whole system
ratione et via, via et ratione progredi, disputare (Or. 33. 116)to proceed, carry on a discussion logically
novam rationem ingredito enter on a new method
a certa ratione proficiscito be based on a sound principle
a falsis principiis proficiscito start from false premises
ad philosophorum or philosophandi rationes revocare aliquidto deal with a subject on scientific principles
perpetuitas et constantia (Tusc. 5. 10. 31)logical consistency
partes generibus subiectae suntthe species is subordinate the genus
genus universum in species certas partiri et dividere (Or. 33. 117)to analyse a general division into its specific parts
genere, non numero or magnitudine differreto differ qualitatively not quantitatively
spinae partiendi et definiendi (Tusc. 5. 8. 22)minute, captious subdivisions and definitions
rem (res) definireto define a thing
a definitione proficiscito start from a definition
involutae rei notitiam definiendo aperire (Or. 33. 116)to make an obscure notion clear by means of definition
sub metum subiectum esseto be comprised under the term "fear."
constituere, quid et quale sit, de quo disputeturto determine the nature and constitution of the subject under discussion
in ordinem redigere aliquidto systematise, classify a thing
conexum et aptum esse inter seto be closely connected with each other
cohaerere, coniunctum esse cum aliqua reto be closely connected with a thing
arte (artissime) coniunctum esseto be very intimately related
apte (aptissime) cohaerereto be very intimately related
continuatio seriesque rerum, ut alia ex alia nexa et omnes inter se aptae colligataeque sint (N. D. 1. 4. 9)systematic succession, concatenation
diffusum, dissipatum esseto have no coherence, connection
confusum, perturbatum esseto be confused
rem dissolutam conglutinare, coagmentareto reunite disconnected elements
argumentum firmum, magnuma strong, striking proof
argumentum afferreto bring forward a proof
argumentum immortalitatis afferre (not pro)to quote an argument in favour of immortality
argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstraturto bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul
argumento huic rei est, quoda proof of this is that..
aliquid planum facere (Ad Herenn. 2. 5)to demonstrate, make a thing clear
aliquid alicui probare (or c. Acc. c. Inf.)to prove one's point to a person's satisfaction
argumentis confirmare, comprobare, evincere aliquid (or c. Acc. c. Inf.)to prove a thing indisputably
argumentum ducere, sumere ex aliqua re or petere ab aliqua reto derive an argument from a thing
argumentum premere (not urgere)to persist in an argument, press a point
loci (τόποι) argumentorum (De Or. 2. 162)the points on which proofs are based; the grounds of proof
argumenta refellere, confutareto refute arguments
rationem afferre (Verr. 3. 85. 195)to bring forward an argument (based on common-sense)
concludere, colligere, efficere, cogere ex aliqua reto draw a conclusion from a thing
acute, subtiliter concludereto draw a subtle inference
ratio or rationis conclusio efficitthe conclusion proves that..
ratiocinatio, ratiothe syllogism; reasoning
prima (superiora); consequentia (Fin. 4. 19. 54)premises; consequences
conclusiuncula fallax or captioa fallacious argument; sophism
positum est a nobis primum (c. Acc. c. Inf.)we start by presupposing that..
hoc positoon this supposition, hypothesis
hoc probato consequens estit follows from what we have shown
sequitur (not ex quo seq.) utit follows from this that..
ex quo, unde, hinc efficitur utit follows from this that..
disputatio, quaestiosystematic, scientific discussion
disputare (de aliqua re, ad aliquid)to discuss, investigate a subject scientifically
subtiliter disputareto thoroughly discuss
in utramque partem, in contrarias partes disputare (De Or. 1. 34)to discuss both sides of a question
in nullam partem disputareto say nothing either for or against an argument
non repugnoI have nothing to say against it
pertinacem (opp. clementem) esse in disputandoto be dogmatic; positive
opponere alicui aliquidto object, to adduce in contradiction
dare, concedere aliquidto grant, admit a thing
sumere (opp. reicere) aliquidto assume a thing
tenere aliquid; stare in aliqua reto insist on a point
obtinere aliquidto maintain one's assertion, prove oneself right
in controversia (contentione) esse, versarito be at variance with
in controversiam cadereto be at variance with
in controversiam vocare, adducere aliquidto make a thing the subject of controversy
in controversiam vocari, adduci, venire (De Or. 2. 72. 291)to be contested, become the subject of debate
in controversia relinquere aliquidto leave a point undecided
controversiam (contentionem) habere cum aliquoto maintain a controversy with some one
in contentione ponitur, utrum...anit is a debated point whether... or..
id, de quo agitur or id quod cadit in controversiamthe point at issue
controversiam sedare, dirimere, componere, tollereto put an end to, settle a dispute
controversiam diiudicareto decide a debated question
transigere aliquid cum aliquoto come to an understanding with a person
res mihi tecum estI have a point to discuss with you
sine (ulla) controversiaindisputably; incontestably
hoc est a (pro) methis goes to prove what I say
res ipsa docetthe very facts of the case show this
res ipsa (pro me apud te) loquiturthe matter speaks for itself
res confecta estthe question is settled, finished
consentire, idem sentire cum aliquoto agree with a person
dissentire, dissidere ab or cum aliquoto disagree with a person
omnes (uno ore) in hac re consentiuntall agree on this point
una et consentiens vox estall are unanimous
una voce; uno oreunanimously
uno, communi, summo or omnium consensu (Tusc. 1. 15. 35)unanimously
re concinere, verbis discrepareto agree in fact but not in word
hoc convēnit inter noswe have agreed on this point
hoc mihi tecum convēnit (Att. 6. 1. 14)I agree with you there
quī convenit?how is this consistent? how are we to reconcile this...?
summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)the learned men are most unanimous in..
constantia (opp. inconstantia) (Tusc. 5. 11. 32)consistency
inter se pugnare or repugnareto be mutually contradictory
secum pugnare (without sibi); sibi repugnare (of things)to contradict oneself, be inconsistent
a se dissidere or sibi non constare (of persons)to contradict oneself, be inconsistent
pugnantia loqui (Tusc. 1. 7. 13)to make contradictory, inconsistent statements
dicere contra aliquem or aliquid (not contradicere alicui)to contradict some one
res RomanaeRoman history (i.e. the events in it)
res gestae RomanorumRoman history (i.e. the events in it)
historiahistory (as a science)
historia Romana or rerum Romanarum historiaRoman history (i.e. the exposition, representation of it by writers)
memoria rerum RomanarumRoman history (as tradition)
historiam (-as) scribereto write a history
res populi Romani perscribereto write a history of Rome
rerum scriptoran historian
rerum auctor (as authority)an historian
evolvere historias, litterarum (veterum annalium) monumentato study historical records, read history
memoriae traditum est, memoriae (memoria) proditum est (without nobis)tradition, history tells us
tradunt, dicunt, feruntthey say; it is commonly said
accepimuswe know; we have been told
historiae prodiderunt (without nobis)history has handed down to us
apud rerum scriptores scriptum videmus, scriptum estwe read in history
duplex est memoria de aliqua rea twofold tradition prevails on this subject
rerum veterum memoriaancient history
memoria vetus (Or. 34. 120)ancient history
veterum annalesancient history
veterum annalium monumentaancient history
antiquitatis memoriaancient history
recentioris aetatis memoriamodern history
memoria huius aetatis (horum temporum)the history of our own times; contemporary history
nostra memoria (Cael. 18. 43)the history of our own times; contemporary history
omnis memoria, omnis memoria aetatum, temporum, civitatum or omnium rerum, gentium, temporum, saeculorum memoriauniversal history
memoriam annalium or temporum replicareto consult history
aetas heroica (Tusc. 5. 3. 7)the mythical period, the heroic age
tempora heroica (N. D. 3. 21. 54)the mythical period, the heroic age
fabulae, historia fabularismythology
repetere ab ultima (extrema, prisca) antiquitate (vetustate), ab heroicis temporibusto go back to the remote ages
ut a fabulis ad facta veniamusto pass from myth to history
historicorum fide contestata memoriahistoric times
historiae, rerum fideshistoric truth
narrare aliquid ad fidem historiaeto give a veracious and historic account of a thing
res historiae fide comprobataan acknowledged historical fact
incorrupta rerum fidesgenuine historical truth
ad historiam (scribendam) se conferre or se applicareto devote oneself to writing history
homo in historia diligensa conscientious historian
memoriam rerum gestarum (rerum Romanarum) tenereto be well versed in Roman history
domestica (externa) nosseto be acquainted with the history of one's own land
temporum ratio, descriptio, ordochronology
temporum ordinem servareto observe the chronological order of events
servare et notare temporato observe the chronological order of events
res temporum ordine servato narrareto narrate events in the order of their occurrence
temporibus errare (Phil. 2. 9. 23)to make a chronological mistake
ad temporum rationem aliquid revocareto calculate the date of an event
diligentem esse in exquirendis temporibusto be exact in calculating dates
terrarum or regionum descriptio (geographia)geography
Africae situm paucis exponereto give a brief exposition of the geography of Africa
regionum terrestrium aut maritimarum scientiageographical knowledge
mathematica (-ae) or geometria (-ae), geometrica (-orum) (Tusc. 1. 24. 57)mathematics
mathematicorum ratione concludere aliquidto draw a mathematical conclusion
formas (not figuras) geometricas describereto draw geometrical figures
se conferre ad naturae investigationemto devote oneself to the study of a natural science
astrologia (pure Latin sidera, caelestia)astronomy
spectator siderum, rerum caelestium or astrologusan astronomer
arithmetica (-orum)arithmetic
numeri (-orum)arithmetic
bis bina quot sint non didicisseto be absolutely ignorant of arithmetic
artis opus; opus arte factum or perfectuma work of art
opus summo artificio[TR1] factuma master-piece of classical work
opus omnibus numeris absolutuma master-piece of classical work
artem exercereto follow an artistic profession, practise an art
artem tradere, docereto teach an art
artem profiterito profess an art
artium (liberalium) studium, or simply studiuma taste for the fine arts
artis praecepta, or also simply arsthe rules of art; aesthetics
(artis, artium) intellegens, peritus (opp. idiota, a layman)a connoisseur; a specialist
existimator (doctus, intellegens, acerrimus)a (competent, intelligent, subtle) critic
in existimantium arbitrium venire (Brut. 24. 92)to come before the tribunal of the critics
iudicium facereto criticise
sensum, iudicium habereto be a man of taste
elegantia in illo esthe possesses sound judgment in matters of taste
iudicium subtile, elegans, exquisitum, intellegensgood taste; delicate perception
iudicium acuereto cultivate one's powers of criticism
abhorrere ab artibus (opp. delectari artibus)to have no taste for the fine arts
veritatem imitari (Div. 1. 13. 23)(1) to make a lifelike natural representation of a thing (used of the artist); (2) to be lifelike (of a work of art)
in omni re vincit imitationem veritasin everything nature defies imitation
aliquid ad verum exprimereto make a copy true to nature
morum ac vitae imitatioa lifelike picture of everyday life
aliquid e vita ductum esta thing is taken from life
poema condere, facere, componereto write poetry
versus facere, scribereto write poetry
carmina , versus fundere (De Or. 3. 50)to write poetry with facility
carmen epicumepic poetry
poeta epicusan epic, heroic poet
poesis scaenicadramatic poetry
poeta scaenicusa dramatic poet
scriptor tragoediarum, comoediarum, also (poeta) tragicus, comicusa writer of tragedy, comedy
scriptor fabularuma writer of fables
divino quodam instinctu concitari, ferri (Div. 1. 31. 66)to feel inspired
divino quodam spiritu inflatus or tactusinspired
carmen, versum agereto recite a poem, line with appropriate action
carmen recitareto read a piece of verse with expression
carmen pronuntiareto recite a piece of verse (without gestures)
carmen incondituma rough poem; an extempore effusion
se conferre ad poesis studiumto devote oneself to poetry
poetica laude florereto be distinguished as a poet
poesis genus ad Romanos transferreto transplant to Rome one of the branches of poesy
alicuius laudes versibus persequito sing the praises of some one (not canere aliquem)
alicuius laudes (virtutes) canereto sing the praises of some one (not canere aliquem)
alicuius res gestas versibus ornare, celebrareto celebrate some one's exploits in song
ut ait Homerusas Homer sings (not canit)
numerus poetice vinctuspoetical rhythm
artem musicam discere, tractareto learn, study music
nervorum et tibiarum cantusinstrumental music
vocum et fidium (nervorum) cantusvocal and instrumental music
docere aliquem fidibusto teach some one to play a stringed instrument
fidibus discere (De Sen. 8. 26)to learn to play a stringed instrument
fidibus canereto play on the lyre
pellere nervos in fidibusto strike the strings of the lyre
tibias inflareto play the flute
tibiis or tibiā canereto play the flute
ad tibiam or ad tibicinem canereto sing to a flute accompaniment
(homo) symphoniacusa singer, member of a choir
symphōnīa canit (Verr. 3. 44. 105)the orchestra is playing
acroāmaa professional performer
modi (De Or. 1. 42. 187)the melody
modos facereto compose, put to music
numerus, numerithe tune; rhythm
numerose cadereto have a rhythmical cadence
ars pingendi, pictura (De Or. 2. 16. 69)the art of painting
ars fingendithe art of sculpture
signa et tabulae (pictae)statues and pictures
simulacrum e marmore facereto make a marble statue
statuas inscribere (Verr. 2. 69. 167)to put an inscription on statues
ars ludicra (De Or. 2. 20. 84)the dramatic art
fabula, ludus scaenicusthe piece; the play
argumentumthe plot of the piece
actiothe treatment of the piece
actusan act
fabulam agereto act a play (said of the actors)
fabulam edereto bring out a play, put it on the stage (used of the man who finds the money)
fabulam dareto produce a play (of the writer)
in scaenam producere aliquemto introduce a character on the stage
in scaenam prodireto come upon the stage
in scaenam redireto reappear on the stage
de scaena decedereto retire from the stage
in scaenam aliquid inducereto bring a thing upon the stage
familia, grex, caterva histrionuma theatrical company
dominus gregisthe manager
theatrumthe playhouse
theatra reclamantthe spectators protest
populum facilem, aequum habereto have an appreciative audience
plaudere (not applaudere)to applaud, clap a person
plausum dare (alicui)to applaud, clap a person
clamores (coronae) facere, excitareto elicit loud applause
saepius revocatur (Liv. 7. 2. 9)he is encored several times
fabulam exigere (Ter. Andr. Pol.)to hiss a play
fabula cadita piece is a failure, falls flat
histrionem exsibilare, explodere, eicere, exigereto hiss an actor off the stage
histrioni acclamareto interrupt an actor by hooting him
partes agere alicuiusto play the part of some one
agere servum, lenonemto act the rôle of a slave, pander
actor primarum (secundarum, tertiarum) partiumthe actor who plays the leading part
tragoedia or fabula Antigona (not Antigona trag. or fab.)the Antigone
in Sophoclis (not Sophoclea) Aiace or apud Sophoclem in Aiacein Sophocles' Ajax
caterva, chorusthe Chorus in Tragedy
carmen chori, canticuma choric ode in a tragedy
loci melicithe lyric portions of a tragedy
diverbiumstage dialogue
canticuma choric ode
ludi circenses, scaeniciperformances in the circus; theatrical perfomances
ludos apparareto institute games
ludos facere, edere (Iovi)to give public games in honour of Jupiter
ludos instaurareto revive public games
munus gladiatorium edere, dare (or simply munus edere, dare)to give a gladiatorial show
gladiatores dareto give a gladiatorial show
familia gladiatoria (Sest. 64. 134)a band, troupe of gladiators under the management of a lanista
ludus gladiatoriusa school for gladiators
gladiatoribus (Att. 2. 19. 3)at the gladiatorial games
celebritas ludorumcrowded games
magnificentia ludorumsumptuous public games
ludi apparatissimisumptuous public games
ludi Olympia (not ludi Olympici), Pythiathe Olympian, Pythian games
Olympia vincere (Ολύμπια νικαν)to win a prize at the Olympian games
ludi gymnicigymnastic contests
certamina gymnicagymnastic contests
stadium currere (Off. 3. 10. 42)to run a foot-race
ars dicendithe art of speaking; oratory
ad dicendum se conferreto devote oneself to oratory
dicendi praecepta tradereto teach rhetoric
rhetor, dicendi magistera teacher of rhetoric
facultas dicendioratorical talent
natum, factum esse ad dicendumto be a born orator
facilem et expeditum esse ad dicendum (Brut. 48. 180)to be a ready, fluent speaker
rudem, tironem ac rudem (opp. exercitatum) esse in dicendoto be an inexperienced speaker
disertum esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)to be fluent
eloquentem esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)to be a capable, finished speaker
eloquentia valereto be very eloquent
dicendi arte florereto be very eloquent
eloquentiae laude florereto be a distinguished orator
vis dicendioratorical power
multum dicendo valere, posseto have great weight as a speaker
eloquentiae principatum tenereto be considered the foremost orator
primum or principem inter oratores locum obtinereto be considered the foremost orator
oratorum principem esseto be considered the foremost orator
orationem conficereto compose a speech
orationem commentari (Fam. 16. 26)to prepare, get up a speech
oratio meditata (Plin. 26. 3. 7)a prepared speech
subito, ex tempore (opp. ex praeparato) dicereto speak extempore
oratio subitaan extempore speech
oratio perpetuaa continuous discourse
oratio accurata et politaa carefully prepared speech
oratio compositaan elaborate speech
contentio (opp. sermo) (Off. 2. 48)pathetic address; emotional language
copiose dicereto speak very fluently
ornate dicereto speak well, elegantly
libere dicere (Verr. 2. 72. 176)to speak frankly, independently
plane, aperte dicereto speak openly, straightforwardly
perspicue, diserte dicereto speak in clear, expressive language
missis ambagibus dicereto speak without circumlocution
accommodate ad persuadendum dicereto be a persuasive speaker
aggredi ad dicendumto come forward to make a speech; to address the house
verba facere apud populum, in contioneto address a meeting of the people
in contionem (in rostra) escendere (only of Romans)to mount the rostra
orationem habere (Tusc. 5. 33. 94)to make a speech
initium dicendi facereto begin to speak
finem dicendi facereto cease speaking
perorare(1) to make one's peroration; (2) to deliver the closing speech (in a case where several speeches have been made)
animos audientium permovere, inflammareto make an impression on one's audience
animos tenereto rivet the attention of..
audientiam sibi (orationi) facereto obtain a hearing
solutum et expeditum esse ad dicendumto be never at a loss for something to say
lingua promptum esseto have a ready tongue
celeritas in respondendoreadiness in debate, in repartee
bonis lateribus esseto have good lungs
linguae solutiovolubility
genus dicendi (scribendi); oratiostyle
genus dicendi grave or grande, medium, tenue (cf. Or. 5. 20; 6. 21)elevated, moderate, plain style
fusum orationis genusa running style
inconditum dicendi genus (Brut. 69. 242)a rough, unpolished style
inflatum orationis genusa bombastic style
oratio altius exaggerataa bombastic style
elatio atque altitudo orationisthe exalted strain of the speech
exsurgere altius or incitatius ferrito take a higher tone (especially of poets and orators)
magnifice loqui, dicere(1) to speak vehemently, passionately; (2) to speak pompously, boastfully
magniloquentia, granditas verborumpathos; passion
tragoediaetragic pathos
expedita et facile currens oratioan easy, fluent style
oratio aequabiliter fluensan easy, fluent style
flumen orationis (De Or. 2. 15. 62)flow of oratory
siccitas, sanitas orationisthe plain style
verborum tenuitias, oratio subtilisthe plain style
oratio exilis, ieiuna, arida, exsanguisthe dry, lifeless style
ornatus orationis, verborumwell-chosen language, grace of style
elegantia orationistasteful description
oratio pura, pura et emendatapure, correct language
integritas, sinceritas orationis (not puritas)purity of style
oratio inquinata (De Opt. Gen. Or. 3. 7)incorrect language
orationes Catonis antiquitatem redolent (Brut. 21. 82)Cato's speeches sound archaic
ex illius orationibus ipsae Athenae redolentthere is a flavour of Atticism about his discourse
oratio soluta (not prosa) or simply oratioprose
oratio numerose cadithis style has a well-balanced cadence
numeris orationem astringere, vincireto make a speech rhythmical
lumina, flores dicendi (De Or. 3. 25. 96)flowers of rhetoric; embellishments of style
sententias (verbis) explicare, aperireto explain one's sentiments
sententiae reconditae ex exquisitae (Brut. 97. 274)profound sentiments
ubertas (not divitiae) et copia orationisa full and copious style of speech
crebritas or copia (opp. inopia) sententiarum or simply copiarichness of ideas
sententiis abundans or creber (opp. sententiis inanis)rich in ideas
adumbrare aliquid (Or. 14. 43)to roughly sketch a thing
exprimere aliquid verbis or oratione (vid. sect. VI. 3, note adumbrare...)to express clearly, make a lifelike representation of a thing
exponere aliquid or de aliqua reto give an account of a thing (either orally or in writing)
sententiae inter se nexaethe connection
perpetuitas verborumthe connection
contextus orationis (not nexus, conexus sententiarum)the connection
ratio sententiarumthe connection of thought
ratio, qua sententiae inter se excipiunt.the connection of thought
vitam alicuius exponereto give an account of a man's life
vitam alicuius depingereto make a sketch of a man's life
de ingenio moribusque alicuius exponereto make a character-sketch of a person
summo colore aliquid illustrareto depict a thing in lively colours
ante oculos ponere aliquidto bring a thing vividly before the eyes
oculis or sub oculos, sub aspectum subicere aliquidto represent a thing vividly
rerum sub aspectum paene subiectio (De Or. 3. 53. 202)graphic depiction
perlustrare, lustrare oculis aliquidto scrutinise, examine closely
sic exponere aliquid, quasi agatur res (non quasi narretur)to represent a thing dramatically
aliquem disputantem facere, inducere, fingere (est aliquid apud aliquem disputans)to introduce a person (into a dialogue) discoursing on..
in uno conspectu ponere aliquidto give a general idea of a thing
sub unum aspectum subicere aliquidto give a general idea of a thing
in brevi conspectu ponere aliquidto make a short survey of a thing
uno conspectu videre aliquidto have a general idea of a thing
breviter tangere, attingere aliquidto touch briefly on a thing
strictim, leviter tangere, attingere, perstringere aliquidto make a cursory mention of a thing; to mention by the way (not obiter or in transcursu)
quasi praeteriens, in transitu attingere aliquidto make a cursory mention of a thing; to mention by the way (not obiter or in transcursu)
res summas attingereto dwell only on the main points
summatim aliquid exponereto dwell only on the main points
multa verba facereto go deeply into a matter, discuss it fully
multum, nimium esse (in aliqua re) (De Or. 2. 4. 17)to go deeply into a matter, discuss it fully
pluribus verbis, copiosius explicare, persequi aliquidto give a full, detailed account of a thing
fusius, uberius, copiosius disputare, dicere de aliqua reto speak at great length on a subject, discuss very fully
breviter, paucis explicare aliquidto explain a matter briefly, in a few words (not paucis verbis)
rem paucis absolvere (Sall. Iug. 17. 2)to explain a matter briefly, in a few words (not paucis verbis)
rebus ipsis par est oratiothe circumstances are described in language worthy of them
rebus verba respondentthe circumstances are described in language worthy of them
copiam quam potui persecutus sumI have exhausted all my material
verbis non omnia exsequi posseto be unable to say all one wants
in medium proferre aliquidto bring a subject forward into discussion
in medio ponere (proponere)to publish, make public
silentio praeterire (not praetermittere) aliquidto pass over in silence
significare aliquem or aliquidto allude to a person or thing (not alludere)
significatione appellare aliquemto allude to a person or thing (not alludere)
describere aliquem (Cael. 20. 50)to allude to a person or thing (not alludere)
leviter significare aliquidto hint vaguely at a thing
ordine narrare, quomodo res gesta sitto detail the whole history of an affair
dicendo ornare aliquidto embellish a narrative
rhetorice, tragice ornare aliquid (Brut. 11. 43)to add rhetorical, dramatic embellishments to a subject
digressus, digressio, egressioa digression, episode
quod ornandi causa additum esta digression, episode
includere in orationem aliquidto interpolate, insert something
inserere orationi aliquidto interpolate, insert something
interponere aliquid (De Am. 1. 3)to interpolate, insert something
dicendo augere, amplificare aliquid (opp. dicendo extenuare aliquid)to lend lustre to a subject by one's description
in maius ferre, in maius extollere aliquidto exaggerate a thing
in maius accipere aliquidto overestimate a thing
digredi (a proposito) (De Or. 2. 77. 311)to digress, deviate
studio alicuius rei provectus summy zeal for a thing has led me too far
longe, alte (longius, altius) repetere (either absolute or ab aliqua re)to go a long way back (in narrative)
oratio longius repetita (De Or. 3. 24. 91)a rather recondite speech
accedere ad cotidiani sermonis genusto adopt the language of everyday life
ad vulgarem sensum or ad communem opinionem orationem accommodare (Off. 2. 10. 35)to express oneself in popular language
actio (Brut. 38)delivery
pronuntiatio c. Gen.artistic delivery; declamation
actio paulum claudicatthe delivery is rather halting, poor
haerere, haesitare (Catil. 2. 6. 13)to stop short, hesitate
perturbari, permoverito be nervous, embarrassed
de scripto orationem habere, dicere (opp. sine scripto, ex memoria)to read a speech
interpellare aliquem (dicentem)to interrupt
vox magna, clara (Sulla 10. 30)a strong, loud voice
vox gravis, acuta, parva, mediocrisa deep, high, thin, moderate voice
vox canōra (Brut. 63. 234)a melodious, ringing voice
vox lenis, suppressa, summissaa gentle, subdued voice
vocem mittere (sonitum reddere of things)to speak, utter a sound
vocem summittereto lower one's voice
contentio, remissio vocisraising, lowering the voice
vocem intercludere (Just. 11. 8. 4)to prevent some one from speaking
nulla vox est ab eo auditano sound passed his lips
magna voce clamareto shout at the top of one's voice
clamorem tollere (Liv. 3. 28)to raise a shout, a cry
gestum (always in the sing.) agereto gesticulate
non habeo argumentum scribendiI have nothing to write about
deest mihi argumentum ad scribendum (Att. 9. 7. 7)I have nothing to write about
non habeo, non est quod scribamI have nothing to write about
res (opp. verba) mihi suppetitI have abundance to say
materia mihi crescitmy subject grows as I write
res componere ac digerereto arrange and divide the subject-matter
dispositio rerum (De Inv. 1. 7. 9)the arrangement of the subject-matter
materia rerum et copia uberrimaabundance of material
infinita et immensa materiaabundance of material
materiem ad ornatum praebereto afford matter for elaboration, embellishment
id quod (mihi) propositum esta theme, subject proposed for discussion
res propositaa theme, subject proposed for discussion
id quod quaerimus (quaeritur)a theme, subject proposed for discussion
institutum or id quod instituia theme, subject proposed for discussion
a proposito aberrare, declinare, deflectere, digredi, egredito digress from the point at issue
ad propositum reverti, redireto come back to the point
ad rem redireto come back to the point
sed redeat, unde aberravit oratiobut to return from the digression we have been making
sed ad id, unde digressi sumus, revertamurbut to return from the digression we have been making
verum ut ad id, unde digressa est oratio, revertamurbut to return from the digression we have been making
mihi propositum est c. Inf. (or mihi proposui, ut)the task I have put before myself is..
ponereto propose, set a theme
ponere alicui, de quo disputetto set some one a theme for discussion
ponere iubere, qua de re quis audire velit (Fin. 2. 1. 1)to let those present fix any subject they like for discussion
quaestionem ponere, proponereto propose a subject of debate, put a question
quaestionem poscere (Fin. 2. 1. 1)to get a question submitted to one
hoc loco exsistit quaestio, quaeriturat this point the question arises
nunc id quaeritur, agiturthe question now is..
res, de qua nunc quaerimus, quaeriturthe question at issue
magna quaestio est (followed by an indirect question)it is a difficult point, disputed question
quaerendum esse mihi visum estthe question has forced itself on my mind
quaestionem solvereto decide, determine a question
quaestio ad exitum venitthe question has been settled
ad interrogata respondereto answer questions
bene interrogareto cross-examine cleverly, put leading questions
percontanti non deesse (De Or. 1. 21. 97)to answer every question
responsum ab aliquo ferre, auferreto extract an answer from some one
respondere in hanc sententiamto answer to this effect
ioco uti (Off. 1. 29. 103)to make a joke
haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixiI said it in jest
animo prompto esse ad iocandumto be humorously inclined
extra iocum, remoto ioco (Fam. 7. 11. 3)joking apart
facete dicereto be witty
facetiis uti, facetum esseto make witty remarks
facete et commode dicere to indulge in apt witticisms
breviter et commode dictuma short, pointed witticism
facete dictuma witticism, bon mot
arcessitum dictum (De Or. 2. 63. 256)a far-fetched joke
dicta dicere in aliquemto make jokes on a person
aspergere sales orationi (Or. 26. 87)to intersperse one's speech with humorous remarks
aliquid ad ridiculum convertereto make a joke of a thing
(homo) ridiculus (Plaut. Stich. 1. 3. 21)a wit; a joker
lepos in iocandohumour
iucunde esse (Deiot. 7. 19)to be in a good temper
se dare iucunditatito let oneself be jovial
sibi displicere (opp. sibi placere)to be in a bad temper
ioca et seria agereto be now jesting, now in earnest
serio dicere (Plaut. Bacch. 1. 1. 42)to say in earnest..
severitatem adhibereto show that one is serious
ineptum esse (De Or. 2. 4. 17)to be silly, without tact
nimium diligentem esseto be pedantic
lingua graeca latinā locupletior (copiosior, uberior) estthe Greek language is a richer one than the Latin
commercium linguaeintercourse of speech
volubilitas, solutio linguaevolubility
vitium orationis, sermonis or simply vitiuma mistake, solecism
saepe (crebro, multa) peccavit, erravit, lapsus esthe has made several mistakes
eiusdem linguae societate coniunctum esse cum aliquo (De Or. 3. 59. 223)to be united by having a common language
orationis expertem esseto be unable to express one's ideas
sermo patrius (Fin. 1. 2. 4)native tongue; vernacular
consuetudo sermonis, loquendito usage of language
cotidiani sermonis ususthe ordinary usage of language, everyday speech
communis sermonis consuetudothe ordinary usage of language, everyday speech
sermo familiaris et cotidianusthe ordinary usage of language, everyday speech
aliquid a consuetudine sermonis latini abhorret, alienum estthe expression is not in accordance with Latin usage
consuetudo vitiosa et corrupta (opp. pura et incorrupta) sermonisincorrect usage
incorrupta latini sermonis integritas (Brut. 35. 132)pure, correct Latin
sermo latinus (opp. sermo parum latinus) (cf. sect. VII. 2., note For the use of adverbs...)good Latin
latine loqui (Brut. 45. 166)(1) to speak Latin, (2) to speak good Latin (also bene latine), (3) to express oneself clearly
graece or graeca lingua loquito speak the Greek language
latinam linguam scire or didicisseto know Latin
latine scireto know Latin
latine commentarito write treatises in Latin
aliquid e graeco in latinum (sermonem) convertere, vertere, transferreto translate from Greek into Latin
Platonem vertere, convertereto translate Plato
ab or de (not ex) Platone vertere, convertere, transferreto translate from Plato
ex Platonis Phaedone haec in latinum conversa suntwhat follows has been translated into Latin from Plato's Phaedo
aliquid (graeca) latine reddere or sermone latino interpretarito render something into Latin
ad verbum transferre, exprimereto translate literally, word for word (not verbo tenus)
verbum e verbo exprimereto translate literally, word for word (not verbo tenus)
verbum pro verbo reddereto translate literally, word for word (not verbo tenus)
totidem verbis transferreto translate literally, word for word (not verbo tenus)
his fere verbis, hoc fere modo convertere, transferreto translate freely
liber (scriptoris) conversus, translatusthe work when translated; translation (concrete)
interpretatio, translatio (not versio or conversio)the process of translation
interpresthe translator
leges dicendithe rules of speech, grammar
praecepta grammaticorumthe rules of speech, grammar
grammaticus (De Or. 1. 3. 10)a linguist, philologian
emendate scribereto write correctly, in faultless style
latine scribere (Opt. Gen. Or. 2. 4)to write good Latin
enuntiatio, enuntiatum, sententiathe sentence, proposition
compositio, structura verborumthe structure of the sentence
ambitus, circuitus, comprehensio, continuatio (verborum, orationis), also simply periodusthe period
constructio, structura verborum, forma dicendithe construction
adiungi, addi coniunctivo (Marc. Cap. 3. 83)to be used with the conjunctive mood
copia, ubertas verborumprofusion of words
verbis abundantem esse, abundareto be rich in words
inopia verborumpoverty of expression
lectissimis verbis uti (De Or. 3. 37)to employ carefully chosen expressions
prisca, obsoleta (opp. usitata), ambigua verbaobsolete, ambiguous expressions
locutio (Brut. 74. 258)a phrase
verbo, nomine; re, re quidem veranominally; really
si verba spectasliterally
verbis alicuius, e.g. salutare (Liv. 9. 36)in some one's name; on some one's behalf (not nomine alicuius)
haec verba sunt (Ter. Phorm. 3. 2. 32)these are mere empty phrases
inanis verborum sonitusmere words; empty sound
inanium verborum flumensenseless rant
flosculi, rhetorum pompafine, rhetorical phrases
voces iacere (Sall. Iug. 11)to let fall an expression
nullum (omnino) verbum facereto not say a word
ne verbum (without unum) quidem de aliquo facereto say not a syllable about a person
verba facere (de aliqua re, apud aliquem)to speak on a subject
verbum ex aliquo elicereto extract a word from some one
verbis concertare or altercari cum aliquo (B. C. 3. 19. 6)to hold an altercation with a man
verborum concertatioan altercation, debate
pauca dicere (pauca verba dicere only of the orator)to say only a few words
omnia verba huc redeuntall this means to say
nullum verbum ex ore eius excidit (or simply ei)no word escaped him
verbo parum valere (Tusc. 3. 5. 11)to unable to find a suitable expression
verbum prorsus nullum intellegerenot to understand a single word
huic rei deest apud nos vocabulumwe have no expression for that
inducere novum verbum in latinam linguamto introduce a new word into the Latin language
verba parere, fingere, facereto invent, form words
nominum interpretatioetymology (not etymologia)
vocabulum, verbum, nomen ducere ab, ex...to form, derive a word from... (used of the man who first creates the word)
verbum ductum esse a...putareto derive a word from... (used of an etymologist)
originem verbi repetere a...to derive a word from... (used of an etymologist)
nomina enodare or verborum origines quaerere, indagareto give the etymological explanation of words
nomen amicitiae (or simply amicitia) dicitur ab amandothe word amicitia comes from amare
in aliqua re dicito be used in speaking of a thing
quid significat, sonat haec vox?what is the meaning, the original sense of this word?
quae est vis huius verbi?what is the meaning, the original sense of this word?
quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?what is the meaning, the original sense of this word?
vis et notio verbi, vocabulithe fundamental meaning of a word
vox, nomen carendi or simply carere hoc significat (Tusc. 1. 36. 88)the word carere means..
quem intellegimus sapientem?what do we understand by "a wise man"?
quae intellegitur virtuswhat do we mean by "virtue"?
quid est virtus?what do we mean by "virtue"?
idem valere, significare, declarareto have the same meaning
vocabula idem fere declarantiasynonyms
vocabulum latius patetthe word has a more extended signification
vocabulum angustius valetthe word has a narrow meaning
iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant or ut u. libido sit or iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc. libidinemanger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge
in bonam (malam) partem accipere aliquidto take a thing in good (bad) part
aemulatio dupliciter dicitur, ut et in laude et in vitio hoc nomen sitthe word aemulatio is employed with two meanings, in a good and a bad sense
verba ac litteras or scriptum (legis) sequi (opp. sententia the spirit)to hold by the letter (of the law)
hoc vocabulum generis neutri (not neutrius) est)this word is neuter
ordo verborum (Or. 63. 214)the order of words
vocabulum propriumthe proper term; a word used strictly
verbum translatum (Or. 27. 92)a figurative expression; a word used metaphorically
translatioa metaphor
verba compositawell-arranged words
verborum immutatioa trope; metonymy
continua translatio (Or. 27. 94)an allegory; continuous metaphor
simili utito employ a comparison, simile
dissimulatio (Off. 1. 30. 108)irony
vetus (verbum) est (c. Acc. c. Inf.)it was said long ago that..
ut est in proverbioas the proverb says
ut or quod or quomodo aiunt, ut or quemadmodum dicituras the proverb says
in proverbii consuetudinem or simply in proverbium venireto pass into a proverb
proverbii locum obtinere (Tusc. 4. 16. 36)to be used as a proverb
hoc est Graecis hominibus in proverbiothis is a proverb among the Greeks
bene illo Graecorum proverbio praecipiturthat Greek proverb contains an excellent lesson
vetamur vetere proverbioan old proverb tells us not to..
proverbium vetustate or sermone tritum (vid. sect. II. 3, note tritus...)an old proverb which every one knows
syllabam, litteram producere (opp. corripere) (Quintil. 9. 4. 89)to lengthen the pronunciation of a syllable or letter
haec vox longa syllaba terminatur, in longam syllabam cadit, exitthis word ends in a long syllable
oriri a longa (De Or. 1. 55. 236)to begin with a long syllable
syllabarum aucepsa verbal, petty critic; a caviller
verborum aucupium or captatiominute, pedantic carping at words
litteras exprimere (opp. obscurare)to pronounce the syllables distinctly
ad litteram, litterateto the letter; literally
litterarum ordothe alphabet
litterae, elementathe alphabet
ad litteram or litterarum ordine digerereto arrange in alphabetical order
litteris mandare or consignare aliquid (Acad. 2. 1. 2)to put down in writing
litteris persequi (vid. sect. VIII. 2, note persequi...) aliquidto treat in writing
scriptor (not auctor = guarantor)the writer, author
scribereto take to writing, become an author
ad scribendum or ad scribendi studium se conferreto become a writer, embrace a literary career
animum ad scribendum appellere, applicareto become a writer, embrace a literary career
librum scribere, conscribereto write a book
librum conficere, componere (De Sen. 1. 2)to compose, compile a book
librum edere (Div. 1. 3. 6)to publish a book
librum evolvere, volvereto open a book
volumen explicareto open a book
librum mittere ad aliquem (Fin. 1. 3. 8)to dedicate a book to some one
index, inscriptio librithe title of a book
liber inscribitur Laelius (Off. 2. 9. 30)the book is entitled "Laelius"
Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo) or in eo (not suo) libro, qui inscribitur LaeliusCicero says in his "Laelius."
est liber de...there exists a book on..
exstat liber (notice the order of the words)the book is still extant
liber intercidit, periitthe book has been lost
liber deperditusa book which has been entirely lost sight of
liber perditusa lost book of which fragments (relliquiae, not fragmenta) remain
liber qui fertur alicuiusa book which is attributed to some one
nescio quisan anonymous writer
liber refertur ad nescio quem auctoremthe book is attributed to an unknown writer
hic liber est de amicitia (not agit) or hoc libro agitur de am.the book treats of friendship
libro continetur aliquidthe book contains something... (not continet aliquid)
libro scriptor complexus est aliquidthe book contains something... (not continet aliquid)
in extremo libro (Q. Fr. 2. 7. 1)at the end of the book
liber mihi est in manibusto be engaged on a book
librum in manibus habere (Acad. 1. 1. 2)to be engaged on a book
liber, oratio in manibus estthe book, speech can easily be obtained
librum in manus sumereto take up a book in one's hands
librum de manibus ponereto lay down a book (vid. sect. XII. 3, note vestem deponere...)
perpolire, limare diligenter librum, opusto polish, finish a work with the greatest care
extrema manus accēdit operi (active extremam manum imponere operi)to put the finishing touch to a work
liber accurate, diligenter scriptusa carefully written book
aliquid, multa ex Ciceronis libris excerpere (not excerpere librum)to make extracts from Cicero's writings
aliquid in commentarios suos referre (Tusc. 3. 22. 54)to enter a thing in one's note-book
librum annotare, interpolare, distinguereto furnish a book with notes, additional extracts, marks of punctuation
se abdere in bibliothecam suamto bury oneself in one's library
Platonem legere, lectitareto read Plato
locum Platonis afferre, proferre (not citare)to quote a passage of Plato
scriptor hoc loco dicitour (not noster) author tells us at this point
Cicero loco quodam haec dicitCicero says this somewhere
Platonem legere et cognoscereto study Plato
legendo percurrere aliquidto read cursorily
apud Platonem scriptum videmus, scriptum est or simply estwe read in Plato
in Platonis Phaedone scriptum estin Plato's "Phaedo" we read
verba, oratio, exemplum scriptoristhe text of the author (not textus)
legentes, ii qui leguntthe reader
languorem, molestiam legentium animis afferreto weary, bore the reader
liber plenus delectationisa very charming book
alicuius mens in scriptis spirata man's soul breathes through his writings
mendum (scripturae) (Fam. 6. 7. 1)a clerical error, copyist's mistake
mendose scriptumfull of orthographical errors
labi in scribendoto make a mistake in writing
mendosum esse (Verr. 2. 4. 77)(1) to make frequent mistakes in writing; (2) to be full of mistakes (speaking of a passage)
inducere verbum (Phil. 13. 19. 43)to strike out, delete a word
epistulam (litteras) dare, scribere, mittere ad aliquemto write a letter to some one
epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa or quae ad A. scripta esta letter to Atticus
epistulam dare alicui ad aliquemto charge some one with a letter for some one else
epistulam reddere alicui (Att. 5. 21. 4)to deliver a letter to some one (used of the messenger)
epistularum commerciumcorrespondence
litterae missae et allataecorrespondence
colloqui cum aliquo per litterasto correspond with some one
litteras inter se dare et accipereto be in correspondence with..
litteras perferre aliquoto take a letter somewhere
epistulam signare, obsignareto seal, fasten a letter
epistulam solvere, aperire, resignare (of Romans also linum incīdere)to open a letter
epistulam intercipere (Att. 1. 13. 2)to intercept a letter
epistulam deprehendereto take forcible possession of a letter
litteras recitare (Att. 8. 9. 2)to read a letter aloud (in public)
litterae hoc exemplo (Att. 9. 6. 3)a letter, the tenor of which is..
litterae in hanc sententiam or his verbis scriptae suntthe terms, contents of the letter are as follows
Kalendis Ianuariis Romā (dabam)Rome, January 1st
dies (fem. in this sense)the date
pater optime or carissime, mi pater (vid. sect. XII. 10)my dear father
litteras reddere datas a. d. Kal. X. Octob.to deliver a letter dated September 21st
animi affectio or habitus (De Inv. 2. 5)humour; disposition
ita animo affectum esseto be so disposed
animos tentare (Cluent. 63. 176)to try to divine a person's disposition
animum alicuius or simply aliquem flectereto make a person change his intention
animi motus, commotio, permotiothe emotions, feelings
aliqua re moveri, commoverito be moved by a thing
alicuius animum commovereto touch a person's heart, move him
alicuius animum pellereto make an impression on a person's mind
motus excitare in animo (opp. sedare, exstinguere)to excite emotion
commotum or concitatum esseto be moved, agitated
commotum perturbatumque esseto be greatly agitated
alicuius mentem turbare, conturbare, perturbareto upset a person
quid tibi animi est?what sort of humour are you in?
afficere aliquem gaudio, laetitiato give pleasure to some one
afferre alicui laetitiamto give pleasure to some one
laetitiam capere or percipere ex aliqua reto take pleasure in a thing
delectari aliqua reto take pleasure in a thing
in sinu gaudere (Tusc. 3. 21. 51)to rejoice in secret
gaudio perfundito be filled with delight
cumulum gaudii alicui afferre (vid. sect. V. 6) (Fam. 16. 21. 1)to add the crowning point to a person's joy
gaudio, laetitia exsultareto utter cries of joy
laetitia gestire (Tusc. 4. 6. 13)to be transported with joy
effusa laetitiaa transport of joy
laetitia gestiensa transport of joy
gaudio, laetitia efferrito be beside oneself with joy
animum alicuius ad laetitiam excitareto put a man in a pleasurable frame of mind
nimio gaudio paene desipereto almost lose one's reason from excess of joy
doleo aliquid, aliqua re, de and ex aliqua reI am pained, vexed, sorry
aegre, graviter, moleste fero aliquid (or with Acc. c. Inf. or quod)I am pained, vexed, sorry
tuam vicem doleoI am sorry for you
dolore afficito feel pain
dolorem capere (percipere) ex aliqua reto be vexed about a thing
doloribus premi, angi, ardere, cruciari, distineri et divellito feel acute pain
dolorem alicui facere, afferre, commovereto cause a person pain
acerbum dolorem alicui inurereto cause any one very acute pain
acer morsus doloris est (Tusc. 2. 22. 53)the pain is very severe
dolorem in lacrimas effundereto find relief in tears
dolori indulgereto give way to grief
dolor infixus animo haeret (Phil. 2. 26)grief has struck deep into his soul
dolore confici, tabescereto be wasted with grief; to die of grief
dolores remittunt, relaxantthe pain grows less
dolori resistereto struggle against grief
callum obducere dolori (Tusc. 2. 15. 36)to render insensible to pain
animus meus ad dolorem obduruit (Fam. 2. 16. 1)I have become callous to all pain
dolorem abicere, deponere, depellereto banish grief
dolorem alicui eripere (Att. 9. 6. 4)to free a person from his pain
cum magno meo doloreto my sorrow
in aegritudine, sollicitudine esseto be vexed, mortified, anxious
aegritudine, sollicitudine afficito be vexed, mortified, anxious
sollicitum esseto be vexed, mortified, anxious
nihil omnino curarenot to trouble oneself about a thing
non laborare de aliqua renot to trouble oneself about a thing
aliquid me sollicitat, me sollicitum habet, mihi sollicitudini est, mihi sollicitudinem affertsomething harasses me, makes me anxious
aegritudo exest animum planeque conficit (Tusc. 3. 13. 27)anxiety gnaws at the heart and incapacitates it
aegritudine, curis conficito be wasting away with grief
aegritudine afflictum, debilitatum esse, iacēreto be bowed down, prostrated by grief
aegritudinem alicuius elevareto comfort another in his trouble
aliquem aegritudine levareto comfort another in his trouble
quieto, tranquillo, securo animo esseto enjoy peace of mind
rebus suis, sorte sua contentum esseto be contented
satis habeo, satis mihi est c. Inf.I am content to..
paucis, parvo contentum esseto be satisfied with a little
fortunae meae me paenitetI am discontented with my lot
non me paenitet, quantum profecerimI am not dissatisfied with my progress
in luctu esse (Sest. 14. 32)to suffer affliction
in sordibus luctuque iacēreto be in great trouble, affliction
mors alicuius luctum mihi attulitsome one's death has plunged me in grief
in maximos luctus incidereto be overwhelmed by a great affliction
magnum luctum haurire (without ex-)to undergo severe trouble, trials
luctum percipere ex aliqua reto feel sorrow about a thing
omnem luctum plane abstergereto banish all sad thoughts
luctum deponere (Phil. 14. 13. 34)to lay aside one's grief
vel maximos luctus vetustate tollit diuturnitas (Fam. 5. 16. 5)time assuages the most violent grief
timorem, terrorem alicui inicere, more strongly incutereto inspire fear, terror
timor aliquem occupat (B. G. 1. 39)fear comes upon some one
in timore esse, versarito be in fear
in timorem venire, pervenireto become frightened
metus aliquem exanimat (Mil. 24. 65)a man is paralysed with fear
exalbescere metuto grow pale with fear
metu fractum et debilitatum, perculsum esseto be completely prostrated by fear
abicere, omittere timoremto banish one's fears
a metu respirare (Cluent. 70. 200)to recover from one's fright
ex metu se recreare, se colligereto recover from one's fright
respirandi spatium dareto give time for recovery
terror incidit alicuiterror, panic seizes some one
terror invadit in aliquem (rarely alicui, after Livy aliquem)terror, panic seizes some one
in terrorem conicere aliquemto overwhelm some one with terror
(animo) angi (Brut. 27)to be very uneasy; to fret
cura sollicitat angitque aliquemanxiety troubles and torments one
angoribus premito be tormented with anxiety
angoribus confici (Phil. 2. 15. 37)to be worn out, almost dead with anxiety
bono animo esseto be brave, courageous
bonum animum habereto be brave, courageous
animus alicui accedit, crescitto take courage
animum capere, colligereto take courage
animum recipere (Liv. 2. 50)to take courage again
animo forti esseto be brave by nature
fortem te praebebe brave!
alacri et erecto animo esseto show a brisk and cheerful spirit
animum facere, addere alicuito succeed in encouraging a person
animum alicuius confirmareto strengthen, confirm a person's courage
animum alicui augere (B. G. 7. 70)to increase a person's courage
animum alicuius redintegrareto re-inspire courage
animus frangitur, affligitur, percellitur, debilitaturtheir spirits are broken
animos militum accendereto fire with courage
animi cadunttheir courage is ebbing
animo cadere, deficereto lose courage; to despair
animum demittereto lose courage; to despair
erigere alicuius animum or aliquemto encourage a person
excitare animum iacentem et afflictum (opp. frangere animum)to inspire the spiritless and prostrate with new vigour
animo esse humili, demisso (more strongly animo esse fracto, perculso et abiecto) (Att. 3. 2)to be cast down, discouraged, in despair
inflatum, elatum esse aliqua reto be proud, arrogant by reason of something
insolentia, superbia inflatum esseto be puffed up with pride
magnos spiritus sibi sumere (B. G. 1. 33)to be haughty
spiritus alicuius reprimereto lower a person's pride
insolentius se efferreto behave arrogantly
elatius se gerereto give oneself airs
sibi sumere aliquid (Planc. 1. 3)to take upon oneself
contumacius se gerereto display a proud obstinacy
libera contumacia Socratis (Tusc. 1. 29. 71)the frank but defiant demeanour of Socrates (before his judges)
praesenti animo uti (vid. sect. VI. 8, note uti...)to possess presence of mind
aequo (aequissimo) animo ferre aliquidto endure a thing with (the greatest) sang-froid
humane, modice, moderate, sapienter, constanter ferre aliquidto bear a thing with resignation, composure
(animo) paratum esse ad aliquidto be resigned to a thing
omnia perpeti paratum esseto be ready to endure anything
ad omnes casus se comparareto prepare oneself for all contingencies
animum alicuius de statu, de gradu demovere (more strongly depellere, deturbare)to disconcert a person
de statu suo or mentis deici (Att. 16. 15)to lose one's composure; to be disconcerted
de gradu deici, ut diciturto lose one's composure; to be disconcerted
perturbari (animo)to lose one's composure; to be disconcerted
sui (mentis) compotem non esseto lose one's head, be beside oneself
non esse apud se (Plaut. Mil. 4. 8. 26)to lose one's head, be beside oneself
mente vix constare (Tusc. 4. 17. 39)to compose oneself with difficulty
animo adesse (Sull. 11. 33)to be quite unconcerned
ad se redireto regain one's self-possession
constantiam servareto be calm, self-possessed
mente consistereto be calm, self-possessed
desperare suis rebusto despair of one's position
ad (summam) desperationem pervenire, adduci (B. C. 2. 42)to be plunged into the depths of despair
desperatio rerum (omnium) (Catil. 2. 11. 25)absolute despair; a hopeless situation
quid (de) me fiet? (Ter. Heaut. 4. 3. 37)what will become of me?
actum est de meit's all over with me; I'm a lost man
spem habereto cherish a hope
spe duci, niti, tenerito cherish a hope
magna me spes tenet (with Acc. c. Inf.) (Tusc. 1. 41. 97)I have great hopes that..
sperare videorI flatter myself with the hope..
bene, optime (meliora) sperare de aliquo (Nep. Milt. 1. 1)to hope well of a person
in spem venire, ingredi, adducito conceive a hope
spem concipere animoto conceive a hope
spem redintegrare (B. G. 7. 25)to revive a hope
spem alicui facere, afferre, inicereto inspire any one with hope
ad spem aliquem excitare, erigereto awaken new hope in some one
in maximam spem aliquem adducere (Att. 2. 22. 3)to inspire some one with the most brilliant hopes
in meliorem spem, cogitationem aliquem inducere (Off. 2. 15. 53)to induce some one to take a brighter view of things
spem proponere alicuito lead some one to expect..
spes affulget (Liv. 27. 28)a ray of hope shines on us
spem falsam alicui ostendereto rouse a vain, groundless hope in some one's mind
spem alicui adimere, tollere, auferre, eripereto deprive a person of hope
spem praecīdere, incidere (Liv. 2. 15)to cut off all hope
spem perdereto lose hope
spe deici, depelli, deturbarito lose hope
spes ad irritum cadit, ad irritum redigiturexpectation is overthrown
spem abicere, deponereto give up hoping
inani, falsa spe duci, inducito be misled by a vain hope
spes me frustraturhope has played me false
spes extenuatur et evanescithope is vanishing by degrees
spem alicuius fallere (Catil. 4. 11. 23)to deceive a person's hope
spem alicui or alicuius minuereto weaken, diminish a person's hope
spem alicuius confirmareto strengthen a person in his hopes
spem alereto entertain a hope
spem habere in aliquoto set one's hope on some one
spem suam ponere, collocare in aliquoto set one's hope on some one
inter spem metumque suspensum animi esseto hover between hope and fear
praeter spem, exspectationemcontrary to expectation
exspectationem sui facere, commovereto cause oneself to be expected
exspectationem explere (De Or. 1. 47. 205)to fulfil expectation
exspectationi satisfacere, respondereto respond to expectations
exspectatione alicuius rei pendēre (animi) (Leg. Agr. 2. 25. 66)to be in suspense, waiting for a thing
exspectatione torqueri, cruciarito suffer torments of expectation, delay
suspenso animo exspectare aliquidto be waiting in suspense for..
aliquem in summam exspectationem adducere (Tusc. 1. 17. 39)to rouse a person's expectation, curiosity to the highest pitch
misericordiam alicui commovereto excite some one's pity
misericordiam alicuius concitareto excite some one's pity
ad misericordiam aliquem allicere, adducere, inducereto arouse feelings of compassion in some one
misericordia moveri, capi (De Or. 2. 47)to be touched with pity
misericordiam implorareto implore a person's sympathy, pity
indulgere vitiis alicuiusto be indulgent to a person's faults
alicui veniam dare (alicuius rei)to pardon some one
omnem humanitatem exuisse, abiecisse (Lig. 5. 14)to be quite insensible to all feelings of humanity
omnem humanitatis sensum amisisseto be quite insensible of all feelings to humanity
omnis humanitatis expertem esseto be absolutely wanting in sympathy
omnem humanitatem ex animo exstirpare (Amic. 13. 48)to stifle, repress all humane sentiments in one's mind
nullam partem sensus habereto possess not the least spark of feeling
crudelitate uti (vid. sect. VI. 8, note uti...)to behave with cruelty
crudelitatem exercere in aliquoto exercise one's cruelty on some one
crudelitatem adhibere in aliquemto exercise one's cruelty on some one
animadvertere in aliquemto inflict punishment on a person
carum habere aliquemto feel affection for a person
in amore habere aliquemto feel affection for a person
amore prosequi, amplecti aliquemto feel affection for a person
carum esse alicuito be dear to some one
carum atque iucundum esse alicuito be dear to some one
adamasse aliquem (only in Perf. and Plup.) (Nep. Dion 2. 3)to become devoted to some one
aliquem toto pectore, ut dicitur, amare (Leg. 18. 49)to love some one very dearly, with all one's heart
aliquem ex animo or ex animi sententia amare (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 5)to love deeply
amore captum, incensum, inflammatum esse, ardereto be fired with love
amorem ex animo eicereto banish love from one's mind
mel ac deliciae alicuius (Fam. 8. 8. 1)somebody's darling
amores et deliciae alicuiussomebody's darling
in amore et deliciis esse alicui (active in deliciis habere aliquem)to be some one's favourite
aliquem in sinu gestare (aliquis est in sinu alicuius) (Ter. Ad. 4. 5. 75)to love and make a bosom friend of a person
aliquis, aliquid mihi curae or cordi estsomebody, something is never absent from my thoughts
curae habere aliquidto have laid something to heart; to take an interest in a thing
nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)there is nothing I am more interested in than..
desiderio alicuius rei teneri, affici (more strongly flagrare, incensum esse)to long for a thing, yearn for it
desiderio exardescereto be consumed with longing
admirationi esseto be admired
admiratione afficito be admired
admirationem habere (Quintil. 8. 2. 6)to be admired
magna est admiratio alicuiussome one is the object of much admiration
admirationem alicui movereto fill a person with astonishment
admiratione incensum esseto be fired with admiration
admirabilia (= παράδοξα)paradoxes; surprising things
studio ardere alicuius or alicuius rei (De Or. 2. 1. 1)to have enthusiasm for a person or thing
studio alicuius rei aliquem incendereto make some one enthusiastic for a thing
ardor, inflammatio animi, incitatio mentis, mentis vis incitatiorenthusiasm
ardorem animi restinguereto damp, chill enthusiasm
ardor animi resēdit, consedithis enthusiasm has abated, cooled down
fidem habere alicuito believe a person
fidem alicuius rei facere alicuito make some one believe a thing
fidem tribuere, adiungere alicui reito believe in, trust in a thing
fidem abrogare, derogare alicuito rob a person of his credit
fidem alicuius imminuere, infirmare (opp. confirmare)to weaken, destroy a man's credit
fiduciam in aliquo ponere, collocareto put confidence in some one
confidere alicui (but aliqua re)to put confidence in some one
fiduciam (alicuius rei) habereto have great confidence in a thing
fiducia sui (Liv. 25. 37)self-confidence
committere aliquid alicui or alicuius fideito entrust a thing to a person's good faith
totum se committere, tradere alicuito put oneself entirely in some one's hands
fidem colere, servareto preserve one's loyalty
fidem praestare alicuito keep faith with a person, keep one's word
in fide manere (B. G. 7. 4. 5)to remain loyal
fidem laedere, violare, frangereto break one's word
fidem alicuius labefactare (Cluent. 60. 194)to make a person waver in his loyalty
de fide deducere or a fide abducere aliquemto undermine a person's loyalty
fide data et accepta (Sall. Iug. 81. 1)having exchanged pledges, promises
se conferre, se tradere, se permittere in alicuius fidemto put oneself under some one's protection
confugere ad aliquem, ad fidem alicuiusto flee for refuge to some one
in fidem recipere aliquem (B. G. 2. 15. 1)to take a person under one's protection
fidem alicuius obsecrare, implorareto implore some one's protection
fidem addere alicui reito confirm, ratify, sanction something
fidem publicam dare, interponere (Sall. Iug. 32. 1)to guarantee the protection of the state; to promise a safe-conduct
fidem dare alicui (opp. accipere) (c. Acc. c. Inf.)to give one's word that..
fidem servare (opp. fallere)to keep one's word (not tenere)
fidem persolvereto fulfil a promise
fidem (promissum) praestareto fulfil a promise
fidem interponere (Sall. Iug. 32. 5)to pledge one's word to..
fidem prodereto break one's word
fidem frangereto break one's word
promisso stareto abide by one's undertaking
fide obstrictum teneri (Pis. 13. 29)to be bound by one's word; to be on one's honour
fidem facere, afferre alicui rei (opp. demere, de-, abrogare fidem)to make a thing credible
aliquid fidem habet (vid. also fides under sect. VII., History)a thing finds credence, is credible
sponsionem facere, sponsorem esse pro aliquoto be security for some one
praestare aliquem, aliquid, de aliqua re or Acc. c. Inf.to be answerable for a person, a thing
suspicionem movere, excitare, inicere, dare alicuito rouse a person's suspicions
suspicionem habere de aliquoto suspect a person
suspicionem alicuius rei habereto be suspected of a thing
suspicio (alicuius rei) cadit in aliquem, pertinet ad aliquema suspicion falls on some one
aliquem in suspicionem adducere (alicui), aliquem suspectum reddereto make a person suspected
in suspicionem vocari, cadereto become the object of suspicion
in suspicionem alicui venireto be suspected by some one
suspicionem a se removere, depellere, propulsare (Verr. 3. 60. 140)to clear oneself of a suspicion
suspicionem ex animo delereto banish all feeling of prejudice from the mind
suspicio insidet in animo ejushe is in a suspicious mood
suspicio ei penitus inhaerethe is in a suspicious mood
suspicio tenuissima, minimathe faintest suspicion
a suspicione alicuius rei abhorrereto have no presentiment of a thing
animus praesāgit malummy mind forebodes misfortune
animo praesagio malummy mind forebodes misfortune
invisum esse alicuito be hated by some one
odio, invidiae esse alicuito be hated by some one
in invidia esse alicuito be hated by some one
in odio esse apud aliquemto be hated by some one
invidia flagrare, premito be detested
in odium, in invidiam venire alicuito incur a person's hatred
invidiam colligere (aliqua re)to incur a person's hatred
alicuius odium subire, suscipere, in se convertere, sibi conflareto incur a person's hatred
in alicuius odium incurrereto incur a person's hatred
in invidiam, odium (alicuius) vocare aliquemto make a person odious, unpopular
in invidiam adducere aliquemto make a person odious, unpopular
invidiam alicui conflare (Catil. 1. 9. 23)to make a person odious, unpopular
invidiam, odium ex-, concitare alicui, in aliquemto make a person odious, unpopular
capitali odio dissidere ab aliquo (De Am. 1. 2)to be separated by a deadly hatred
odium explere aliqua re (Liv. 4. 32)to glut one's hatred
odium implacabile suscipere in aliquemto conceive an implacable hatred against a man
odio or invidia alicuius ardereto be consumed with hatred
odium inveteratum habere in aliquem (Vat. 3. 6)to cherish an inveterate animosity against some one
odio inflammatum, accensum esseto be fired with a passionate hatred
odium alicuius inflammareto kindle hatred in a person's heart; to fill some one with hatred (not implere, vid. sect. IX. 2, note gaudio...)
odium restinguere, exstinguereto stifle, drown one's hatred
aegre, graviter, moleste, indigne ferre aliquidto be discontented, vexed at a thing; to chafe
indignitas, atrocitas rei (Mur. 25. 51)the revolting nature of an action
o facinus indignum! (Ter. Andr. 1. 1. 118)monstrous!
ira incensum esseto be fired with rage
iracundia inflammatum esseto be fired with rage
ira ardere (Flacc. 35. 88)to be fired with rage
iracundia exardescere, effervescereto be transported with passion
iracundia efferrito be carried away by one's anger
ira defervescit (Tusc. 4. 36. 78)his anger cools
virus acerbitatis suae effundere in aliquem (De Amic. 23. 87)to vent one's anger, spite on some one
iram in aliquem effundereto vent one's anger, spite on some one
iram, bilem evomere in aliquemto vent one's anger, spite on some one
irae indulgere (Liv. 23. 3)to give free play to one's anger
praecipitem in iram esse (Liv. 23. 7)to be short-tempered; to be prone to anger
animum explereto cool one's anger
iracundiam continere, cohibere, reprimereto restrain, master one's passion
iram restinguere, sedareto calm one's anger
animum alicuius ab iracundia revocareto prevent some one from growing angry, appease his anger
stomachum, bilem alicui movereto excite a person's wrath
ulcisci aliquem, poenas expetere ab aliquoto revenge oneself on some one
ulcisci aliquid, poenas alicuius rei expetereto revenge oneself for a thing
ulcisci aliquem pro aliquo or pro aliqua reto revenge oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf
poenas alicuius or alicuius rei repetere ab aliquoto revenge oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf
iniurias persequi (Verr. 2. 3. 9)to avenge an insult
impellere aliquem in furoremto make some one furious
furore inflammari, incendito become furious
furore incensus, abreptus, impulsusin a transport of rage
indignatio aliquem inceditto be filled with indignation
indignationes (Liv. 25. 1. 9)signs of irritation, of discontent
vita honesta (turpis)a virtuous (immoral) life
honesta expetere; turpia fugereto follow virtue; to flee from vice
virtute praeditum, ornatum esse (opp. vitiis obrutum esse)to be virtuous
viam virtutis ingredi (Off. 1. 32. 118)to walk in the ways of virtue
omnia consilia et facta ad virtutem referre (Phil. 10. 10. 20)to make virtue the standard in every thought and act
virtutem sequi, virtutis studiosum esseto strive to attain virtue
virtutis perfectae perfecto munere fungi (Tusc. 1. 45. 109)to live a perfect life
virtutem pristinam retinereto live as scrupulously moral a life as ever
nihil ex pristina virtute remittereto live as scrupulously moral a life as ever
summum bonum in virtute ponereto consider virtue the highest good
virtus hoc habet, ut...this is a characteristic of virtue, it..
a virtute discedere or deficereto deviate from the path of virtue
honestatem deserereto deviate from the path of virtue
a maiorum virtute desciscere, degenerare, deflectereto deteriorate
a parentibus degenerareto degenerate (from one's ancestors)
corrumpi, depravarito be demoralised, corrupted
excitare aliquem ad virtutemto rouse in some one an enthusiasm for virtue
bonitas (Fin. 5. 29. 65)kindheartedness
naturae bonitas (Off. 1. 32. 118)innate goodness, kindness
naturae bonanatural advantages
omni vitio carereto be free from faults
vitia erumpunt (in aliquem) (De Amic. 21. 76)his vices betray themselves
animum vitiis dedereto abandon oneself to vice
vitiis, sceleribus contaminari or se contaminare (Off. 3. 8. 37)to be tainted with vice
vitiis, sceleribus inquinatum, contaminatum, obrutum esseto be vicious, criminal
vitia exstirpare et funditus tollereto eradicate vice
vita omnibus flagitiis, vitiis deditaa life defiled by every crime
vita omnibus flagitiis inquinataa life defiled by every crime
natura proclivem esse ad vitiato have a natural propensity to vice
scelera moliri (Att. 7. 11)to meditate crime
scelus facere, committereto commit crime
facinus facere, committereto do a criminal deed
scelere se devincire, se obstringere, astringito commit a crime and so make oneself liable to the consequences of it
scelus (in se) concipere, suscipereto commit a crime and so make oneself liable to the consequences of it
scelus edere in aliquem (Sest. 26. 58)to commit a crime against some one
scelus scelere cumulare (Catil. 1. 6. 14)to heap crime on crime
scelus supplicio expiareto expiate a crime by punishment
cupiditate alicuius rei accensum, inflammatum esseto be fired with desire of a thing
cupiditate alicuius rei ardere, flagrareto have an ardent longing for a thing
cupiditatem alicuius accendereto rouse a person's interest, cupidity
aliquem ad cupiditatem incitareto rouse a person's interest, cupidity
aliquem cupiditate inflammareto rouse a person's interest, cupidity
cupiditatibus occaecari (Fin. 1. 10. 33)to be blinded by passions
libidine ferrito be carried away by one's passions
se (totum) libidinibus dedereto abandon oneself (entirely) to debauchery
cupiditatibus servire, pārēreto be the slave of one's desires
praecipitem ferri aliqua re (Verr. 5. 46. 121)to be carried away by something
homo impotens suia man of no self-control, self-indulgent
homo effrenatus, intemperansa man of no self-control, self-indulgent
sibi imperare or continere et coercere se ipsumto have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations
animum regere, coercere, cohibereto have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations
animum vincere (Marcell. 3. 8)to have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations
imperare cupiditatibusto overcome one's passions
coercere, cohibere, continere, domitas habere cupiditatesto overcome one's passions
refrenare cupiditates, libidinesto bridle one's desires
effrenatae cupiditatesunrestrained, unbridled lust
indomitae animi cupiditatesunrestrained, unbridled lust
cupiditates explere, satiareto satisfy one's desires
libidinem alicuius excitareto arouse some one's lust
libido dominatur (Or. 65. 219)the passions win the day
libido consēditthe storm of passion has abated
cupiditates deferbuerunt (Cael. 18. 43)the passions have cooled down
animi perturbationes exstirpareto eradicate passion from the mind
iniuriam inferre, facere alicuito wrong a person
iniuria afficere aliquemto wrong a person
iniuria lacessere aliquemto provoke a person by a gratuitous insult
iniuria abstinere (Off. 3. 17. 72)to refrain from doing a wrong, an injustice
iniuriam accipereto be the victim of an injustice
iniuriam ferre, patito suffer wrong
iniurias defendere, repellere, propulsareto repel an injury
iniurias neglegereto leave a wrong unpunished, to ignore it
ab iniuria aliquem defendereto protect any one from wrong
satisfacere alicui pro (de) iniuriisto give some one satisfaction for an injury
contumelia aliquem afficereto insult some one
voces (verba) contumeliosaeinsulting expressions
verborum contumeliaeinsulting expressions
contumeliosis vocibus prosequi aliquem (vid. sect. VI. 11, note Prosequi...)to use insulting expressions to any one
maledictis aliquem onerare, lacerareto heap abuse on some one
offendere aliquem, alicuius animumto hurt some one's feelings
offendere apud aliquem (Cluent. 23. 63)to hurt some one's feelings
in offensionem alicuius incurrere (Verr. 1. 12. 35)to hurt some one's feelings
offendi aliqua re (animus offenditur)to feel hurt by something
offendere in aliquo (Mil. 36. 99)to have something to say against a person, to object to him
offendere in aliqua re (Cluent. 36. 98)to take a false step in a thing; to commit an indiscretion
offensionem habereto give offense to, to shock a person (used of things, vid. sect. V. 18)
res habet aliquid offensionisthere is something repulsive about the thing
vim adhibere, facere alicuito use violence against some one
vim inferre alicuito do violence to a person
vim et manus afferre alicui (Catil. 1. 8. 21)to kill with violence
vim vi depellereto meet force by force
vi vim illatam defendereto meet force by force
insidias collocare, locare (Mil. 10. 27)to set an ambuscade
insidias alicui parare, facere, struere, instruere, tendereto waylay a person
aliquem in insidiis locare, collocare, ponereto place some one in ambush
aliquem in insidias elicere, inducereto draw some one into an ambush
subsidere in insidiis (Mil. 19. 49)to place oneself in ambush
minitari (minari) alicui mortem, crucem et tormenta, bellumto threaten some one with death, crucifixion, torture, war
minitari alicui igni ferroque (Phil. 13. 9. 21)to threaten with fire and sword
denuntiare bellum, caedem (Sest. 20. 46)to threaten war, carnage
minas iacere, iactareto use threats
minis utito use threats
speciem alicuius rei habereto have the appearance of something
speciem alicuius rei praebereto give the impression of...; have the outward aspect of..
speciem prae se ferreto give the impression of...; have the outward aspect of..
in speciemapparently; to look at
specie (De Amic. 13. 47)apparently; to look at
per speciem (alicuius rei)apparently; to look at
per simulationem, simulatione alicuius reiunder pretext, pretence of..
simulare morbumto pretend to be ill
dissimulare morbumto pretend not to be ill
aliquis simulat aegrum or se esse aegrumsome one feigns illness
aliter sentire ac loqui (aliud sentire, aliud loqui)to think one thing, say another; to conceal one's opinions
per dolum (B. G. 4. 13)by craft
dolis et fallaciis (Sall. Cat. 11. 2)by the aid of fraud and lies
sine fuco ac fallaciis (Att. 1. 1. 1)without any disguise, frankly
verba dare alicui (Att. 15. 16)to deceive a person, throw dust in his eyes
mendacium dicereto tell lies
falsa (pro veris) dicereto tell lies
ludere, irridere, deridere aliquemto make sport of, rally a person
illudere alicui or in aliquem (more rarely aliquem)to make sport of, rally a person
ludibrio esse alicuito serve as some one's butt
in ludibrium verti (Tac. Ann. 12. 26)to become an object of ridicule; to be laughed at
omnibus artibus aliquem ludificari, eludereto fool a person thoroughly
per ludibriumin sport, mockery
officium suum facere, servare, colere, tueri, exsequi, praestareto do one's duty
officio suo satisfacere (Div. in Caec. 14. 47)to do one's duty
officio suo fungito do one's duty
omnes officii partes exsequito fulfil one's duty in every detail
nullam officii partem deserereto fulfil one's duty in every detail
diligentem esse in retinendis officiisto be exact, punctual in the performance of one's duty
officium suum deserere, neglegereto neglect one's duty
ab officio discedereto neglect one's duty
de, ab officio decedereto neglect one's duty
officio suo deesse (Fam. 7. 3)to neglect one's duty
ad officium redireto return to one's duties
in officio manere (Att. 1. 3)to remain faithful to one's duty
contra officium est c. Inf.it is a breach of duty to..
ab officio abduci, avocarito let oneself be perverted from one's duty
salvo officio (Off. 3. 1. 4)without violating, neglecting one's duty
multa et magna inter nos officia intercedunt (Fam. 13. 65)we are united by many mutual obligations
in aliquem officia conferreto be courteous, obliging to some one
aliquem officiis suis complecti, prosequito be courteous, obliging to some one
officiosum esse in aliquemto be courteous, obliging to some one
litterae officii or humanitatis plenaea most courteous letter
studere alicui rei, studiosum esse alicuius reito have an inclination for a thing
studio alicuius rei tenerito have an inclination for a thing
propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid (opp. alienum, aversum esse, abhorrere ab aliqua re)to have an inclination for a thing
studiis suis obsequi (De Or. 1. 1. 3)to follow one's inclinations
sibi or ingenio suo indulgere (Nep. Chabr. 3)to indulge one's caprice
rationis participem (opp. expertem) esseto be endowed with reason
ratione praeditum esse, utito be endowed with reason
prudenter, considerate, consilio agere (opp. temere, nullo consilio, nulla ratione)to act reasonably, judiciously
sapere (Off. 2. 14. 48)to be a man of sense, judgment
resipiscere (Att. 4. 5. 2)to recover one's reason, be reasonable again
ad sanitatem reverti, redireto recover one's reason, be reasonable again
ad bonam frugem se recipereto recover one's reason, be reasonable again
ad sanitatem adducere, revocare aliquemto bring some one back to his senses
satin (= satisne) sanus es?are you in your right mind?
rationi repugnareto be contrary to all reason
conscientia recta, recte facti (factorum), virtutis, bene actae vitae, rectae voluntatisa good conscience
mens bene sibi consciaa good conscience
conscientia mala or peccatorum, culpae, sceleris, delictia guilty conscience
animus male sibi consciusa guilty conscience
nullius culpae sibi conscium esseto be conscious of no ill deed
conscientia morderi (Tusc. 4. 20. 45)to be conscience-stricken
conscientiae maleficiorum stimulant aliquemhis guilty conscience gives him no rest
conscientia mala angi, excruciarito be tormented by remorse
(mens scelerum furiis agitatur)to be tormented by remorse
conscientia recte factorum erigito congratulate oneself on one's clear conscience
Furiae agitant et vexant aliquemthe Furies harass and torment some one
modum tenere, retinere, servare, adhibereto observe moderation, be moderate
omnia modice agereto be moderate in all things, commit no excess
modum facere, statuere, constituere alicui rei or alicuius reito set a limit to a thing
modum transireto pass the limit
extra modum prodireto pass the limit
ultra modum progredito pass the limit
metiri, ponderare, aestimare, iudicare aliquid (ex) aliqua reto measure something by the standard of something else; to make something one's criterion
dirigere or referre aliquid ad aliquam remto measure something by the standard of something else; to make something one's criterion
fines certos terminosque constituereto impose fixed limitations
terminis circumscribere aliquidto set bounds to a thing, limit it
moderatum, continentem esseto behave with moderation
moderatum se praebereto behave with moderation
temperantia utito behave with moderation
moderationem, modum adhibere in aliqua reto show moderation in a matter
moderari aliquid (Flacc. 5. 12)to show moderation in a matter
modice ac sapienterwith moderation and judgment
sine modo; nullo modo adhibitowith no moderation
extra, praeter modumbeyond all measure
mediocritatem tenere (Off. 1. 25. 89)to observe the golden mean
homo bene (male) moratusa moral (immoral) man
homo perditusa depraved, abandoned character
praecepta de moribus or de virtutemoral precepts
morum praecepta tradere alicuito give moral advice, rules of conduct
de virtute praecipere alicuito give moral advice, rules of conduct
mores corrupti or perditimoral corruption (not corruptela morum)
tam perditis or corruptis moribusamongst such moral depravity
mores in dies magis labuntur (also with ad, e.g. ad mollitiem)immorality is daily gaining ground
severus morum castigatora stern critic of morals
aliquid abhorret a meis moribus (opp. insitum \[atque innatum\] est animo or in animo alicuius)something is contrary to my moral sense, goes against my principles
consilia et facta (cf. sect. X. 1, note For "thoughts and deeds"...)thought and deed
institutum tenereto remain true to one's principles
ratione; animi quodam iudicioon principle
vitae ratio bene ac sapienter institutaa sound and sensible system of conduct
meae vitae rationes ab ineunte aetate susceptae (Imp. Pomp. 1. 1.)the principles which I have followed since I came to man's estate
certas rationes in agendo sequito follow fixed principles of conduct
omnia temere agere, nullo iudicio utito have no principles
caeco impetu ferrito have no principles
natura et mores; vita moresque; indoles animi ingeniique; or simply ingenium, indoles, natura, morescharacter
vir constans, gravis (opp. homo inconstans, levis)a man of character, with a strong personality
sibi constare, constantem esseto be consistent
animo mobili esse (Fam. 5. 2. 10)to be inconsistent, changeable
aliquid est proprium alicuiussomething is a characteristic of a man
mobilitas et levitas animiinconsistency; changeability
numen (deorum) divinumthe sovereign power of the gods
dei propitii (opp. irati)the favour of heaven
superi; inferithe gods of the upper, lower world
inferi (Orcus and Tartarus only poetical)the world below
ad inferos descendereto descend to the world below
apud inferos esseto be in the lower world
aliquem ab inferis or a mortuis evocare, excitare (passive ab inferis exsistere)to summon some one from the dead
deos sancte, pie venerarito be an earnest worshipper of the gods
deum rite (summa religione) colereto honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly)
cultus dei, deorum (N. D. 2. 3. 8)worship of the gods; divine service
sacra, res divinae, religiones, caerimoniaeritual; ceremonial
rebus divinis interesse (B. G. 6. 13)to take part in divine service (of the priest)
sacris adesseto be present at divine service (of the people)
sacris initiari (Quintil. 12. 10. 14)to be initiated into the mysteries of a cult
templa deorum adireto make a pilgrimage to the shrines of the gods
numerum deorum obtinere (N. D. 3. 20)to be regarded as a god
aliquem in deorum numerum referre, reponereto deify a person
aliquem in deorum numero referreto consider as a god
aliquem divino honere colereto pay divine honours to some one
alicui divinos honores tribuere, habereto pay divine honours to some one
propius ad deos accedere (Mil. 22. 59)to approach the gods
supera et caelestia; humana et citerioriaheavenly things; earthly things
divinitus (De Or. 1. 46. 202)by divine inspiration (often = marvellously, excellently)
divinitus acciditit happened miraculously
imbuere (vid. sect. VII. 7, note imbuere...) pectora religioneto inspire with religious feeling, with the fear of God
audientium animos religione perfundere (Liv. 10. 388)to fill the souls of one's audience with devotion
religionem ex animis extrahere (N. D. 1. 43. 121)to banish devout sentiment from the minds of others
omnem religionem tollere, delereto annihilate all religious feeling
religionem labefactare (vid. sect. V. 7, note In Latin metaphor...)to shake the foundations of religion
religione obstrictos habere multitudinis animos (Liv. 6. 1. 10)to have power over the people by trading on their religious scruples
religionem alicui afferre, inicere, incutereto inspire some one with religious scruples
aliquid religioni habere or in religionem vertereto make a thing a matter of conscience, be scrupulous about a thing
aliquid in religionem alicui venitto make a thing a matter of conscience, be scrupulous about a thing
nulla religioabsence of scruples, unconscientiousness
religionem externam suscipereto embrace a strange religion
novas religiones instituereto introduce a new religion, a new cult
bellum pro religionibus susceptuma religious war
violatas caerimonias inexpiabili religione sancire (Tusc. 1. 12. 27)to invoke an irrevocable curse on the profanation of sacred rites
iusiurandum dare alicuito swear an oath to a person
ex animi mei sententia iuroI swear on my conscience
iureiurando aliquem astringereto bind some one by an oath
iureiurando aliquem adigereto make some one take an oath
iureiurando ac fide se obstringere, utto promise an oath to..
iureiurando teneri (Off. 3. 27. 100)to be bound by oath
iusiurandum (religionem) servare, conservareto keep one's oath
periurium facere; peierareto commit perjury, perjure oneself
iusiurandum violareto break one's oath
opinio deibelief in god
deum esse credimuswe believe in the existence of a God
deos esse negareto deny the existence of the gods
insitas (innatas) dei cognitiones habere (N. D. 1. 17. 44)to have innate ideas of the Godhead; to believe in the Deity by intuition
omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deumbelief in God is part of every one's nature
natura in omnium animis notionem dei impressit (N. D. 1. 16. 43)Nature has implanted in all men the idea of a God
impietasunbelief
qui deum esse negatan atheist
superstitio mentes occupavit (Verr. 4. 51. 113)superstition has taken possession of their souls
superstitione imbutum esseto be tinged with superstition
superstitione teneri, constrictum esse, obligatum esseto be the slave of superstition
superstitionem funditus tollereto absolutely annihilate superstition
superstitionem radicitus or penitus evellereto destroy superstition root and branch
formidinessuperstitious fears; phantoms
precari aliquid a deoto pray to God
precari deum, deosto pray to God
supplicare deo (Sall. Iug. 63. 1)to pray to God
adhibere deo precesto pray to God
praeire verba (carmen) (Liv. 31. 17)to read prayers for the congregation to repeat
(supinas) manus ad caelum tendereto raise the hands to heaven (attitude of prayer)
favete ore, linguis = εὐφημειτεmaintain a devout silence (properly, utter no ill-omened word)
preces facereto pray
grates, laudes agere dis immortalibusto thank, glorify the immortal gods
testari deos (Sull. 31. 86)to call the gods to witness
contestari deos hominesqueto call gods and men to witness
dis bene iuvantibus (Fam. 7. 20. 2)with the help of the gods
quod deus bene vertat!and may God grant success!
quod di immortales omen avertant! (Phil. 44. 11)and may heaven avert the omen! heaven preserve us from this!
quod abominor! (procul absit!)God forbid!
di prohibeant, di meliora!heaven forfend!
quod bonum, faustum, felix, fortunatumque sit! (Div. 1. 45. 102)may heaven's blessing rest on it
precari alicui bene (male) or omnia bona (mala), salutemto bless (curse) a person
vota facere, nuncupare, suscipere, concipereto make a vow
vota solvere, persolvere, reddereto accomplish, pay a vow
voti damnari, compotem fierito have to pay a vow; to obtain one's wish
sacra, sacrificium facere (ἱερὰ ῥέζειν), sacrificareto sacrifice
rem divinam facere (dis)to sacrifice
ture et odoribus incensiswith incense and perfumes
rebus divinis (rite) perpetratisafter having performed the sacrifice (with due ritual)
sacrificium statum (solemne) (Tusc. 1. 47. 113)a periodically recurring (annual) sacrifice
sacra polluere et violareto profane sacred rites
victimas (oxen), hostias (smaller animals, especially sheep) immolare, securi ferire, caedere, mactareto slaughter victims
deos placare (B. G. 6. 15)to appease the anger of the gods
manes expiare (Pis. 7. 16)to appease the manes, make sacrifice for departed souls
pro victimis homines immolareto sacrifice human victims
parentare (Leg. 2. 21. 54)to make a sacrifice on the tomb of one's ancestors
libareto offer libations
diem festum agere (of an individual)to keep, celebrate a festival
diem festum celebrare (of a larger number)to keep, celebrate a festival
supplicationem indicere ad omnia pulvinaria (Liv. 27. 4)to proclaim a public thanksgiving at all the street-shrines of the gods
supplicationem quindecim dierum decernere (Phil. 14. 14. 37)to decree a public thanksgiving for fifteen days
supplicationem habere (Liv. 22. 1. 15)to celebrate a festival of thanksgiving
lectisternium facere, habere (Liv. 22. 1. 18)to hold a lectisternium
oraculum consulereto consult an oracle
oraculum petere (ab aliquo)to ask for an oracular response
mittere Delphos consultumto send and consult the oracle at Delphi
oraculum dare, edereto give an oracular response
responsum dare (vid. sect. VIII. 5, note Note to answer...), respondereto give an oracular response
oraculum Pythium (Pythicum)an oracle given by the Delphian Apollo (Apollo Pythius)
vox Pythia (Pythica) (Liv. 1. 56)an oracle given by the Delphian Apollo (Apollo Pythius)
prodigia procurare (Liv. 22. 1)to avert by expiatory sacrifices the effect of ominous portents
libros Sibyllinos adire, consulere, inspicereto consult the Sibylline books
augurium agere, auspicari (N. D. 2. 4. 11)to take the auspices, observe the flight of birds
de caelo servare (Att. 4. 3. 3)to observe the sky (i.e. the flight of birds, lightning, thunder, etc.)
aves (alites, oscines) addīcunt alicui (opp. abdicunt aliquid)the omens are favourable to some one
augures obnuntiant (consuli) (Phil. 2. 33. 83)the augurs announce an unfavourable sign
auspicato (rem gerere, urbem condere)after having duly taken the auspices
omen accipere (opp. improbare)to accept as a happy omen
accipere, vertere aliquid in omento interpret something as an omen
faustis ominibuswith favourable omens
omen infaustum, tristean evil omen; presage of ill
domus necessariis rebus instructaa comfortably-furnished house
domus ruina impendetthe house threatens to fall in (vid. sect. X. 5, note "Threaten"...)
domus collapsura, corruitura (esse) videturthe house threatens to fall in (vid. sect. X. 5, note "Threaten"...)
domus subita ruina collapsa estthe house suddenly fell in ruins
domum demoliri (Top. 4. 22)to demolish, raze a house
domus non omnes capit (χωρειν)the house is not large enough for all
domum frequentare (Sall. Cat. 14. 7)to be a regular visitor at a house
domus rimas agitthe house walls are beginning to crack
apud eum sic fui tamquam domi meae (Fam. 13. 69)I felt quite at home in his house
apud aliquem esseto be at some one's house
tectum subireto enter the house
tecto, (in) domum suam aliquem recipere (opp. prohibere aliquem tecto, domo)to welcome to one's house (opp. to shut one's door against some one)
domo pedem non efferreto never set foot out of doors
pedem limine efferreto cross the threshold
foras exire (Plaut. Amph. 1. 2. 35)to go out of the house
foras mittere aliquemto turn some one out of the house
in publicoin the streets
in publicum prodire (Verr. 2. 1. 31)to show oneself in the streets, in public
publico carere, se abstinereto never appear in public
domi se tenereto never appear in public
deducere aliquem de domoto escort a person from his house
pro aris et focis pugnare, certare, dimicareto fight for hearth and home
domi (opp. foris)at home; in one's native country
ostium, fores pulsareto knock at the door
ostium, fores aperire, claudereto open, shut the door
fores obserareto bolt the door
ianuam effringere, revellereto burst open the door
valvas (portam) obstruereto barricade a door (a city-gate)
rem domesticam, familiarem administrare, regere, curareto keep house
rem or opes habere, bona possidere, in bonis esseto possess means, to be well off
opibus, divitiis, bonis, facultatibus abundareto be very rich
rem bene (male) gerere (vid. sect. XVI. 10a)to manage one's affairs, household, property well or ill
rem familiarem tuerito manage one's affairs, household, property well or ill
rem familiarem neglegereto neglect, mismanage one's household matters
diligentem, frugi esseto be economical
diligens paterfamiliasa careful master of the house
frugi (opp. nequam) servusa good, useful slave
severum imperium in suis exercere, tenere (De Sen. 11. 37)to be a strict disciplinarian in one's household
in possessionem alicuius rei venireto come into the possession of something
in possessionem alicuius rei invadereto take forcible possession of a thing
expellere aliquem domo, possessionibus pellereto turn a person out of his house, his property
demovere, deicere aliquem de possessioneto dispossess a person
exturbare aliquem omnibus fortunis, e possessionibusto drive a person out of house and home
evertere aliquem bonis, fortunis patriisto drive a person out of house and home
possessione alicuius rei cedere alicui (Mil. 27. 75)to give up a thing to some one else
res, quae moveri possunt; res moventes (Liv. 5. 25. 6)movable, personal property
fundiproperty in land; real property
habitare in domo alicuius, apud aliquem (Acad. 2. 36. 115)to live in some one's house
domicilium (sedem ac domicilium) habere in aliquo locoto dwell in a certain place
sedem collocare alicubi (Rep. 2. 19. 34)to take up one's abode in a place, settle down somewhere
sedem ac domicilium (fortunas suas) constituere alicubito take up one's abode in a place, settle down somewhere
considere alicubi (Att. 5. 14. 1)to take up one's abode in a place, settle down somewhere
multitudinem in agris collocareto settle a large number of people in a country
domo emigrare (B. G. 1. 31)to emigrate
domo profugus (Liv. 1. 1)homeless
induere vestem (without sibi)to dress oneself
vestem mutare (opp. ad vestitum suum redire) (Planc. 12. 29)to go into mourning
vestimenta (et calceos) mutareto change one's clothes (and shoes)
vestitus obsoletus, trituscast-off clothing
vestis stragula or simply vestisdrapery
togatus, palliatuswith a toga, cloak on
pannis obsitusin rags
paludatus, sagatusin a military cloak (paludamentum, of a general; sagum, of soldiers)
togam virilem (puram) sumereto assume the toga virilis
vestem ponere (exuere)to undress
cibum sumere, capereto take food
cibum concoquere, conficereto digest food
multi cibi esse, edacem esseto be a great eater
cibum apponere, ponere alicuito set food before a person
corpus curare (cibo, vino, somno)to refresh oneself, minister to one's bodily wants
ventri deditum esseto be the slave of one's appetite
cibo se abstinereto abstain from all nourishment
ieiunium servareto fast
tantum cibi et potionis adhibere quantum satis estto take only enough food to support life
cibus delicatusdelicacies
panis cibariusordinary bread
vino deditum esse, indulgereto be given to drink
potareto drink to excess; to be a drunkard
alicui bibere dareto give some one to drink
alicui bibere ministrareto serve some one with drink
propīno tibi hoc (poculum, salutem)I drink your health
bene tibi or te!your health!
inter poculawhilst drinking; at table
exhaurire poculumto empty a cup at a draught
victus cotidianusdaily bread
victus tenuis (Fin. 2. 28. 90)meagre diet
res ad vitam necessariaethe necessaries of life
quae ad victum pertinentthe necessaries of life
res ad victum cultumque necessariaethings indispensable to a life of comfort
vitae commoditas iucunditasquecomfort
omnes ad vitam copias suppeditare alicuito provide some one with a livelihood
quae suppeditant ad victum (Off. 1. 4. 12)a livelihood
copiae cotidianis sumptibus suppetunt (vid. sect. IV. 2, note suppeditare...)his means suffice to defray daily expenses
victum aliqua re quaerereto earn a livelihood by something
vivere carne, piscibus, rapto (Liv. 7. 25)to live on meat, fish, by plunder
de suo (opp. alieno) vivereto live on one's means
vitam (inopem) tolerare (B. G. 7. 77)to endure a life of privation
non habeo, qui (unde) vivamI have no means, no livelihood
laute vivere (Nep. Chab. 3. 2)to live well
sumptum facere, insumere in aliquidto spend money on an object
sumptus effusi (vid. sect. IX. 2, note Cf. effusa fuga...) or profusiprodigal expenditure
sumptui parcere (Fam. 16. 4)to incur few expenses
sumptibus modum statuereto limit one's expenditure
sumptum minuereto retrench
sumptus perpetui (Off. 2. 12. 42)current expenses
sumptus liberales (Off. 2. 12. 42)munificence
delicate ac molliter vivereto live a luxurious and effeminate life
luxuria diffluere (Off. 1. 30. 106)to be abandoned to a life of excess
omnium rerum copia diffluereto be abandoned to a life of excess
in luxuriam effundito plunge into excesses, a career of excess
effundere, profundere pecuniam, patrimoniumto squander one's money, one's patrimony
dissipare rem familiarem (suam)to squander all one's property
lacerare bona sua (Verr. 3. 70. 164)to squander all one's property
convivium instruere, apparare, ornare (magnifice, splendide)to prepare, give a feast, dinner
mensas exquisitissimis epulis instruere (Tusc. 5. 21. 62)to load the tables with the most exquisite viands
mensae exstructaea table bountifully spread
caput cenae (Fin. 2. 8. 25)the main dish
secunda mensa (Att. 14. 6. 2)the dessert
ab ovo usque ad mala (proverb.)from beginning to end
aliquem vocare, invitare ad cenamto invite some one to dinner
promittere (ad cenam) (Off. 3. 14. 58)to accept an invitiation to dinner
inter cenam, inter epulasduring dinner; at table
promittere ad aliquemto promise to dine with a person
condicere alicui (ad cenam)to invite oneself to some one's house for dinner
adhibere aliquem cenae or ad cenam, convivio or in conviviumto welcome some one to one's table
cenam alicui apponereto set a repast before a person
convivia tempestiva (Arch. 6. 13)a repast which begins in good time
accipere aliquem (bene, copiose, laute, eleganter, regio apparatu, apparatis epulis)to entertain, regale a person
deverti ad aliquem (ad \[in\] villam)to go to a man's house as his guest
deversari apud aliquem (Att. 6. 1. 25)to stop with a person, be his guest for a short time when travelling
mihi cum illo hospitium est, interceditmy relations with him are most hospitable
hospitio alicuius utito enjoy a person's hospitality
hospitium cum aliquo facere, (con-)iungereto become a friend and guest of a person
hospitio aliquem accipere or excipere (domum ad se)to welcome a man as a guest in one's house
hospitium renuntiare (Liv. 25. 18)to sever (previous) hospitable relations
domus patet, aperta est mihiI am always welcome at his house
invitare aliquem tecto ac domo or domum suam (Liv. 3. 14. 5)to invite some one to one's house
vitae societassocial life
facilitas, faciles mores (De Am. 3. 11)a sociable, affable disposition
societatem inire, facere cum aliquoto associate with some one
dissipatos homines in (ad) societatem vitae convocare (Tusc. 1. 25. 62)to unite isolated individuals into a society
socium se adiungere alicuito attach oneself to a person's society
aliquem socium admittereto admit a person into one's society
assiduum esse cum aliquoto be always in some one's company
uti aliquo (familiariter)to be on intimate terms with some one
alicuius familiaritate utito be on intimate terms with some one
usu, familiaritate, consuetudine coniunctum esse cum aliquoto be on friendly terms with a person
est mihi consuetudo, or usus cum aliquoto be on friendly terms with a person
vivere cum aliquoto be on friendly terms with a person
vetus usus inter nos interceditwe have known each other well for several years
devincire aliquem consuetudineto attach a person to oneself
se dare in consuetudinem alicuiusto devote oneself to a person's society
se insinuare in consuetudinem alicuius (Fam. 4. 13. 6)to insinuate oneself into a person's society
summa necessitudine aliquem contingereto stand in very intimate relations to some one
in simultate cum aliquo sumrelations are strained between us
hominum coetus, congressus fugereto shun society
in solitudine vivere (Fin. 3. 20. 65)to live in solitude
secum vivereto live to oneself
vitam solitariam agereto live a lonely life
sermonem conferre, instituere, ordiri cum aliquoto enter into conversation with some one
se dare in sermonem cum aliquoto enter into conversation with some one
sermonem inferre de aliqua reto turn the conversation on to a certain subject
in eum sermonem incidere, qui tum fere multis erat in oreto talk of a subject which was then the common topic of conversation
sermo incidit de aliqua rethe conversation turned on..
in sermonem ingredito begin a conversation
sermo ortus est ab aliqua rethe conversation began with..
sermonem alio transferreto turn the conversation to another topic
medium sermonem abrumpere (Verg. Aen. 4. 388)to break off in the middle of the conversation
sermonem producere in multam noctem (Rep. 6. 10. 10)to prolong a conversation far into the night
sermonem habere cum aliquo de aliqua re (De Am. 1. 3)to converse, talk with a person on a subject
hinc sermo ductus estthe conversation began in this way
sermo inductus a tali exordiothe conversation began in this way
multus sermoa long conversation
narratio, fabulaa narrative, tale, story
narratiuncula, fabella (Fin. 5. 15)an anecdote
haec fabula docetthis fable teaches us (without nos)
convenire aliquemto meet a person (accidentally or intentionally) and talk with him
congredi cum aliquoto meet a person by arrangement, interview him
sui potestatem facere, praebere alicuito give audience to some one
colloquendi copiam facere, dareto give audience to some one
conveniendi aditum dare alicuito give audience to some one
aditum conveniendi or colloquium petereto ask a hearing, audience, interview
(ad colloquium) admitti (B. C. 3. 57)to obtain an audience of some one
in congressum alicuius venireto obtain an audience of some one
velle aliquem (Plaut. Capt. 5. 2. 24)to wish to speak to some one
paucis te voloa word with you
tribus verbis te voloa word with you
sermo cotidianus, or simply sermoconversational language
coram loqui (cum aliquo)to speak personally to..
commercium loquendi et audiendiinterchange of ideas; conversation
capita conferre (Liv. 2. 45)to put our heads together
remotis arbitris or secretoin private; tête-à-tête
intra parietes (Brut. 8. 32)within four walls
salutem alicui dicere, impertire, nuntiareto greet a person
aliquem salvere iubere (Att. 4. 14)to greet a person
quid agis?how are you?
quid agitur? quid fit?what is going on? how are you getting on?
Cicero Attico S.D.P. (salutem dicit plurimam)Cicero sends cordial greetings to Atticus
tibi plurimam salutemmy best wishes for your welfare
nuntia fratri tuo salutem verbis meis (Fam. 7. 14)remember me to your brother
adscribere alicui salutem (Att. 5. 20. 9)to add to one's letter good wishes to some one
salute data (accepta) redditaqueafter mutual greeting
inter se consalutare (De Or. 2. 3. 13)to exchange greetings
dextram alicui porrigere, dareto give one's right hand to some one
dextram iungere cum aliquo, dextras inter se iungereto shake hands with a person
te valere iubeoI bid you good-bye, take my leave
vale or cura ut valeasgood-bye; farewell
bene ambula et redambulaa safe journey to you
gratulari alicui aliquid or de aliqua reto congratulate a person on something
filiam alicui despondereto betroth one's daughter to some one
sibi (aliquam) despondere (of the man)to betroth oneself, get engaged
nuptias conciliare (Nep. Att. 5. 3)to arrange a marriage
nuptias parareto make preparations for a marriage
condicio (uxoria) (Phil. 2. 38. 99)a match
ducere uxoremto marry (of the man)
ducere aliquam in matrimoniumto marry (of the man)
nubere alicuito marry (of the woman)
nuptam esse cum aliquo or alicuito be married to some one
uxorem habere (Verr. 3. 33. 76)to be a married man
dotem filiae dareto give a dowry to one's daughter
filiam alicui in matrimonio or in matrimonium collocare or simply filiam alicui collocareto give one's daughter in marriage to some-one
filiam alicui in matrimonium dareto give one's daughter in marriage to some-one
filiam alicui nuptum dareto give one's daughter in marriage to some-one
nuntium remittere alicui (De Or. 1. 40)to separate, be divorced (used of man or woman)
repudium dicere or scribere alicuito separate, be divorced (used of man or woman)
divortium facere cum uxoreto separate from, divorce (of the man)
aliquam suas res sibi habere iubere (Phil. 2. 28. 69)to separate from, divorce (of the man)
repudium remittere viro (Dig. 24. 3)to separate (of the woman)
testamentum facere, conscribereto make a will
testamentum obsignare (B. G. 1. 39)to sign a will
testamentum resignareto open a will
testamentum rescindereto declare a will to be null and void
testamentum subicere, supponereto produce a false will
testamentum irritum facere, rumpereto annul, revoke a will
testamento aliquid cavere (Fin. 2. 31)to prescribe in one's will
pecuniam alicui legareto leave money to a person in one's will
aliquem heredem testamento scribere, facereto appoint some one as heir in one's will
alicuius mortui voluntas (suprema)the last wishes of a deceased person
heredem esse alicuito be some one's heir
hereditate aliquid accipereto inherit something
exheres paternorum bonorum (De Or. 1. 38. 175)disinherited
exheredari a patreto be disinherited
hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquosomething has been left as a legacy by some one
hereditas ad me or mihi venit ab aliquo (Verr. 2. 1. 10)I have received a legacy from a person
hereditatem adire, cernereto take possession of an inheritance
heres ex asse, ex dodrantesole heir; heir to three-quarters of the estate
heres ex besseheir to two-thirds of the property
assuefactus or assuetus aliqua reaccustomed to a thing
in consuetudinem or morem venireto become customary, the fashion
in nostros mores inducere aliquid (De Or. 2. 28)to introduce a thing into our customs; to familiarise us with a thing
consuetudinem suam tenere, retinere,[TR1] servareto keep up a usage
consuetudo inveterascit (B. G. 5. 41. 5)a custom is taking root, growing up
res obsolescita thing is going out of use, becoming obsolete
a vetere consuetudine discedereto give up old customs
a pristina consuetudine deflectereto give up old customs
in pristinam consuetudinem revocare aliquidto return to ancient usage
aliquid est meae consuetudinisit is my custom
aliquid cadit in meam consuetudinemit is my custom
mos (moris) est, ut (Brut. 21. 84)it is customary to..
more, usu receptum estit is traditional usage
ut fit, ita ut fit, ut fere fitas usually happens
ut solet, ut fieri soletas usually happens
ita fert consuetudoso custom, fashion prescribes
ex consuetudine mea (opp. praeter consuetudinem)according to my custom
more institutoque maiorum (Mur. 1. 1)according to the custom and tradition of my fathers
ex instituto (Liv. 6. 10. 6)according to traditional usage
negotiatores (Verr. 2. 69. 168)business-men
homines negotii (always in sing.) gerentesbusiness-men
negotii bene gerentes (Quint. 19. 62)good men of business
negotium obire or exsequito be engaged upon a transaction, carry it out
negotium (rem) conficere, absolvereto settle, finish a transaction
mercaturam facereto be engaged in commerce, wholesale business
negotia habere (in Sicilia)to have commercial interests in Sicily
contrahere rem or negotium cum aliquo (Cluent. 14. 41)to have business relations with some one
transigere aliquid (de aliqua re) cum aliquo or inter seto transact, settle a matter with some one
nihil cum aliquo contrahereto do no business with a man
quaestum facere (Fam. 15. 14)to make money
quaestui aliquid habere (Off. 2. 3. 13)to make a profit out of something
res, quae importantur et exportanturimports and exports
exponere, proponere merces (venales)to set out goods for sale
parvo, vili pretio or bene emereto buy cheaply
magno or male emereto buy dearly
aliquid magno, parvo stat, constata thing costs much, little
aliquid nihilo or gratis constata thing costs nothing
pretium alicui rei statuere, constituere (Att. 13. 22)to fix a price for a thing
pecunia magna, grandis (multum pecuniae)much money
pecunia exigua or tenuislittle money
pecunia praesens (vid. sect. V. 9, note Notice too...) or numeratacash; ready money
aes (argentum) signatumcoined money; bullion
argentum (factum) (Verr. 5. 25. 63)silver plate
nummi adulterinibad money; base coin
pecuniam erogare (in classem)to spend money
pecuniam insumere in aliquid or consumere in aliqua reto devote money to a purpose
pecuniam numerare alicui (Att. 16. 16)to pay cash
pecuniam solvereto pay money
pecuniam alicui debereto owe some one money
pecuniam alicui credere (sine fenore, usuris)to lend some one money (without interest)
pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquoto lend, borrow money at interest
pecuniam fenore occupare (Flacc. 21. 54)to put out money at interest
pecuniam collocare in aliqua reto put money in an undertaking
pecunia iacet otiosathe money is bringing in no interest, lies idle
pecuniam mutuari or sumere mutuam ab aliquoto borrow money from some one
pecuniam alicui mutuam dareto lend money to some one
pecuniam creditam solvereto repay a loan
non solvendo esse (Phil. 2. 2. 4)to be bankrupt
pecuniam exigere (acerbe)to demand payment
magnas pecunias ex aliqua re (e.g. ex metallis) facereto have a large income from a thing (e.g. from mines)
nummus iactatur (Off. 3. 20. 80)the bank-rate varies
versuram facere (Att. 5. 21. 12)to transfer a debt
nummulis acceptis (Att. 1. 16. 6)for a trifle, a beggarly pittance
res nummaria or pecuniariafinance; money-matters
ratio pecuniarumfinance; money-matters
argentariam facere (Verr. 5. 59. 155)to be a banker
argentariam dissolvere (Caecin. 4. 11)to close one's bank, give up banking
codex or tabulae ratio accepti et expensiaccount-book; ledger
nomina facere or in tabulas referreto book a debt
pecunia in nominibus estmoney is outstanding, unpaid
pecuniam in nominibus habeoI have money owing me
alicui expensum ferre aliquidto put a thing down to a man's account
alicui acceptum referre aliquid (Verr. 2. 70. 170)to put down to a man's credit
rationem alicuius rei inire, subducereto go through accounts, make a valuation of a thing
ad calculos vocare aliquid (Amic. 16. 58)to go through accounts, make a valuation of a thing
inita subductaque ratione aliquid facereto do something after careful calculation
rationes putare cum aliquoto balance accounts with some one
ratio alicuius rei constat (convenit, par est)the accounts balance
ratio acceptorum et datorum (accepti et expensi) (Amic. 16. 58)the account of receipts and expenditure
rationem diligenter conficereto keep the accounts (day-book) carefully
summam facere alicuius reito compute the total of anything
de capite deducere (vid. sect. XII. 1, note Notice too...) aliquidto subtract something from the capital
rationem alicuius rei reddereto render count of a matter; to pass it for audit
rationem alicuius rei reposcere aliquem or ab aliquoto demand an account, an audit of a matter
rationem ab aliquo reptere de aliqua re (Cluent. 37. 104)to demand an account, an audit of a matter
centesimae (sc. usurae) (Att. 5. 21. 11)interest at 1 per cent per month, 12 per cent per annum
binis centesimis fenerarito lend at 24 per cent.[TR1]
ternae centesimae36 per cent per annum
quaternas centesimas postulare (Att. 5. 21. 11)to demand 48 per cent
semisses6 per cent (i.e. if for 100 denarii, asses, one pays half a denarius, half an as per month)
semissibus magna copia estmoney is plentiful at 6 per cent
usurae semissium (Colum.)6 per cent
usurae semisses (Jurists)6 per cent
quadrantes usurae3 per cent (a quarter of centesima)
trientes or trientariae usurae (Att. 4. 15)4 per cent
quincunx (Pers. 5. 149)5 per cent
quincunces usurae5 per cent
fenus ex triente Id. Quint. factum erat bessibus (Att. 4. 15. 7)the rate of interest has gone up from 4 per cent to 8 per cent
perpetuum fenus (Att. 5. 21. 13)simple interests
fenus renovatumcompound interest
anatocismus (ἀνατοκισμός) (Att. 5. 21. 11)compound interest
fenus iniquissimum, grande, graveexorbitant rate of interest
usura menstruamonthly interest
centesimis cum anatocismo contentum esse (Att. 5. 21. 12)to be content with 12 per cent at compound interest
lucrum facere (opp. damnum facere) ex aliqua reto make profit out of a thing
in lucro ponere aliquid (Flacc. 17. 40)to consider a thing as profit
debitor, or is qui debetthe debtor
creditor, or is cui debeothe creditor
fides et ratio pecuniarumcredit and financial position
fides (vid. sect. IX. 10, note fides has six...) conciditcredit is going down
fidem derogare alicuito rob a person of his credit
fides aliquem deficere coepita man's credit begins to go down
fides (de foro) sublata est (Leg. Agr. 2. 3. 8)credit has disappeared
fides tota Italia est angustacredit is low throughout Italy
fidem moliri (Liv. 6. 11. 8)to shake credit
laborare de pecuniato have pecuniary difficulties
in summa difficultate nummaria versari (Verr. 2. 28. 69)to be in severe pecuniary straits
in maximas angustias (pecuniae) adducito be reduced to extreme financial embarrassment
aes alienum (always in sing.) facere, contrahereto incur debts
grande, magnum (opp. exiguum) aes alienum conflareto incur debts on a large scale
incidere in aes alienumto get into debt
aes alienum habereto be in debt
in aere alieno esseto be in debt
in suis nummis versari (Verr. 4. 6. 11)to have no debts
aere alieno obrutum, demersum esseto be deeply in debt
aere alieno oppressum esseto have pressing debts
aes alienum dissolvere, exsolvereto pay one's debts
nomina (cf. sect. XIII. 3) solvere, dissolvere, exsolvereto pay one's debts
nomina exigere (Verr. 3. 10. 28)to demand payment of, recover debts
ex aere alieno exireto get out of debt
aere alieno liberarito get out of debt
versurā solvere, dissolvere (Att. 5. 15. 2)to pay one's old debts by making new
opus locareto contract for the building of something
opus redimere, conducereto undertake the contract for a work
domum aedificandam locare, conducereto give, undertake a contract for building a house
aedificatorem esse (Nep. Att. 13. 1)to be fond of building
exstruere aedificium, monumentumto erect a building, a monument
fundamenta iacere, agereto lay the foundations
turrim excitare, erigere, facereto build a tower
oppidum constituere, condereto build, found a city
pontem facere in flumineto build a bridge over a river
inicere pontemto build a bridge over a river
flumen ponte iungereto build a bridge over a river
pons est in fluminethere is a bridge over the river
pontem dissolvere, rescindere, interscindere (B. G. 2. 9. 4)to break down a bridge
luminibus alicuius obstruere, officereto obstruct a person's view, shut out his light by building
agrum colere (Leg. Agr. 2. 25. 67)to till the ground
agros fertiles deserereto leave fertile ground untilled
agriculturae studere (opp. agriculturam deserere)to have a taste for agriculture
opus rusticumtillage; cultivation
in agris esse, habitareto live in the country
serere; semen spargereto sow
sementem facere (B. G. 1. 3. 1)to look after the sowing
ut sementem feceris, ita metes (proverb.) (De Or. 2. 65)as you sow, so will you reap
laetae segetesthe laughing cornfields
laetissimi flores (Verr. 4. 48. 107)a glorious expanse of flowers
odores, qui efflantur e floribusthe perfume exhaled by flowers
messis in herbis est (Liv. 25. 15)the crop is in the blade
adhuc tua messis in herba est (proverb.)your crop is still green, i.e. you are still far from your ambition
frumenta in agris matura non sunt (B. G. 1. 16. 2)the corn is not yet ripe
messem facereto reap
fructus demetere or percipereto reap
fructus condere (N. D. 2. 62. 156)to harvest crops
messis opīma (opp. ingrata)a good harvest
arbores serere (De Sen. 7. 24)to plant trees
arbores caedereto fell trees
inopia (opp. copia) rei frumentariaewant of corn; scarcity in the corn-market
difficultas annonae (Imp. Pomp. 15. 44)want of corn; scarcity in the corn-market
annona ingravescit, crescitthe price of corn is going up
annona laxatur, levatur, vilior fitthe price of corn is going down
caritas annonae (opp. vilitas), also simply annonadearth of corn; high prices
ad denarios L in singulos modios annona perveneratcorn had gone up to 50 denarii the bushel
annona cara estcorn is dear
hac annona (Plaut. Trin. 2. 4. 83)when corn is as dear as it is
rem pecuariam facere, exercere (cf. Varr R. R. 2. 1)to rear stock
pastum agereto drive to pasture
pastum ireto go to pasture
pascere gregemto feed a flock (of goats)
greges pascuntur (Verg. G. 3. 162)the herds are grazing
alere equos, canesto keep horses, dogs
animalia quae nobiscum degunt (Plin. 8. 40)domestic animals
forma rei publicaethe constitution
descriptio civitatisthe constitution
instituta et legesthe constitution
rem publicam constituereto give the state a constitution
rem publicam legibus et institutis temperare (Tusc. 1. 1. 2)to give the state a constitution
civitati leges, iudicia, iura describereto give the state a constitution
suis legibus utitur (B. G. 1. 45. 3)(a state) has its own laws, is autonomous
nullam habere rem publicamto have no constitution, be in anarchy
rem publicam in pristinum statum restituereto restore the ancient constitution
optima re publicaat the time of a most satisfactory government
libera res publica, liber populusthe Republic
rem publicam gerere, administrare, regere, tractare, gubernareto govern, administer the state
rei publicae praeesseto have the management of the state
ad gubernacula (metaph. only in plur.) rei publicae sedereto hold the reins of government
clavum rei publicae tenereto hold the reins of government
gubernacula rei publicae tractareto hold the reins of government
principem civitatis esseto be the chief man in the state
principem in re publica locum obtinereto hold the first position in the state
negotia publica (Off. 1. 20. 69)public affairs
vita occupata (vid. sect. VII. 2)the busy life of a statesman
accedere, se conferre ad rem publicamto devote oneself to politics, a political career
rem publicam capessere (Off. 1. 21. 71)to devote oneself to politics, a political career
in re publica or in rebus publicis versarito take part in politics
rei publicae deesse (opp. adesse)to take no part in politics
a negotiis publicis se removereto retire from public life
a re publica recedereto retire from public life
in otium se referre (Fam. 99)to retire into private life
vita privata (Senect. 7. 22)private life
publico carere, forum ac lucem fugereto shun publicity
forensi luce carereto shun publicity
rem publicam tueri, stabilireto defend, strengthen the state
res publica stat (opp. iacet)the state is secure
rem publicam augere, amplificareto aggrandise, extend the power of the state
saluti rei publicae non deesseto further the common weal
rei publicae causa (Sest. 47. 101)for political reasons
e re publica (opp. contra rem p.)for the advantage of the state; in the interests of the state
summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)the welfare of the state
commoda publica or rei publicae rationesthe interests of the state
rei publicae rationibus or simply rei publicae consulereto further the public interests
ad rei publicae rationes aliquid referreto consider a thing from a political point of view
in rem publicam omni cogitatione curaque incumbere (Fam. 10. 1. 2)to devote one's every thought to the state's welfare
omnes curas et cogitationes in rem publicam conferreto devote one's every thought to the state's welfare
omnes curas in rei publicae salute defigere (Phil. 14. 5. 13)to devote one's every thought to the state's welfare
totum et animo et corpore in salutem rei publicae se conferreto devote oneself body and soul to the good of the state
bene, optime sentire de re publicato have the good of the state at heart
omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentireto have the good of the state at heart
rector civitatis (De Or. 1. 48. 211)the head of the state
viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti or viri in re publica prudentesstatesmen
auctores consilii publicistatesmen
principes rem publicam administrantes or simply principesstatesmen
prudentia (civilis) (De Or. 1. 19. 85)statesmanship; political wisdom
homo in re publica exercitatusan experienced politician
res civilespolitical questions
plus in re publica videreto possess great political insight
longe prospicere futuros casus rei publicae (De Amic. 12. 40)to foresee political events long before
alicuius in re publica or capessendae rei publicae consilia eo spectant, ut...a man's policy is aiming at, directed towards..
rei publicae muneribus orbatusbanished from public life
gerendis negotiis orbatus (Fin. 5. 20. 57)banished from public life
civitate donare aliquem (Balb. 3. 7)to make a man a citizen
in civitatem recipere, ascribere, asciscere aliquemto enroll as a citizen, burgess
civitatem alicui dare, tribuere, impertireto present a person with the freedom of the city
civitatem mutare (Balb. 11. 27)to naturalise oneself as a citizen of another country
generis antiquitate florereto be of noble family
nobilitati favere (Sest. 9. 21)to be a friend of the aristocracy
nobilitatis fautorem, studiosum esseto be a friend of the aristocracy
homo novusa parvenu (a man no member of whose family has held curule office)
ordo senatorius (amplissimus)the senatorial order
ordo equester (splendidissimus)the equestrian order; the knights
summo loco natusof high rank
nobili, honesto, illustri loco or genere natusof illustrious family
humili, obscuro loco natusof humble, obscure origin
humilibus (obscuris) parentibus natusof humble, obscure origin
infimo loco natusfrom the lowest classes
equestri loco natus or ortusa knight by birth
summi (et) infimi (Rep. 1. 34. 53)high and low
homines omnis generispeople of every rank
homines omnium ordinum et aetatumpeople of every rank and age
homo plebeius, de plebeone of the people
traduci ad plebem (Att. 1. 18. 4)to get oneself admitted as a plebeian
transitio ad plebem (Brut. 16. 62)to transfer oneself from the patrician to the plebeian order
traductio ad plebemto transfer oneself from the patrician to the plebeian order
unus de or e multisone of the crowd; a mere individual
faex populi, plebis, civitatisthe dregs of the people
infima fortuna or condicio servoruma degraded, servile condition
unus e togatorum numeroan ordinary, average Roman citizen
dignitatem suam tueri, defendere, retinere, obtinereto guard, maintain one's dignity
dignitati suae servire, consulereto be careful of one's dignity
aliquem ad summam dignitatem perducere (B. G. 7. 39)to elevate to the highest dignity
principem (primum), secundum locum dignitatis obtinereto occupy the first, second position in the state
in altissimo dignitatis gradu collocatum, locatum, positum esseto occupy a very high position in the state
aliquem ex altissimo dignitatis gradu praecipitare (Dom. 37. 98)to depose, bring down a person from his elevated position
aliquem de dignitatis gradu demovereto overthrow a person (cf. sect. IX. 6)
aliquem gradu movere, depellere or de gradu (statu) deicereto overthrow a person (cf. sect. IX. 6)
dignitatis gradum ascendereto attain a position of dignity
ad honores ascendereto rise, mount to the honours of office
amplissimos honorum gradus assequi, adipiscito reach the highest grade of office
ad summos honores pervenire (cf. also sect. V. 17)to attain to the highest offices
vir defunctus honoribusa man who has held every office (up to the consulship)
principatum tenere, obtinereto occupy the leading position
de principatu deiectus (B. G. 7. 63)deposed from one's high position
contendere cum aliquo de principatu (Nep. Arist. 1)to contend with some one for the pre-eminence
primas (e.g. sapientiae) alicui deferre, tribuere, concedereto give the palm, the first place (for wisdom) to some one
convocare populi concilium and populum ad conciliumto summon an assembly of the people
contionem advocare (Sall. Iug. 33. 3)to summon an assembly of the people
agere cum populo (Leg. 3. 4. 10)to submit a formal proposition to the people
concilium indicere, habere, dimittereto fix the day for, to hold, to dismiss a meeting
comitia habereto hold a meeting of the people
comitia magistratibus creandismeetings for the election of officers
comitiis (Abl.) convenireto meet for elections
comitiis consulem crearito be chosen consul at the elections
suffragium ferre (vid. sect. VI. 4, note Not sententiam...)to vote (in the popular assembly)
multitudinis suffragiis rem permittereto leave a matter to be decided by popular vote
legem, rogationem promulgare (Liv. 33. 46)to bring a bill before the notice of the people
legem ferre or simply ferre ad populum, ut...to propose a law in the popular assembly
legem suadere (opp. dissuadere)to support a bill (before the people)
pro lege dicereto support a bill (before the people)
legem rogare or rogare populum (cf. sect. XVI. 4, note Aulus Gellius...)to formally propose a law to the people
legem perferre (Liv. 33. 46)to carry a law (said of the magistrate)
lex perfertura law is adopted
legem antiquare (opp. accipere, iubere)to reject a bill
legem sciscere (Planc. 14. 35)to vote for a law
legem iubereto ratify a law (used of the people)
legem sancireto let a bill become law (of the people and senate)
Solo lege sanxit, ut or neSolo ordained by law that..
Solonis legibus sanctum erat, ut or nethe laws of Solon ordained that..
legem abrogare (Att. 3. 23. 2)to replace an old law by a new
legem tollere (Leg. 2. 12. 31)to abolish a law
legi intercedereto protest against a law (used of the veto, intercessio, of plebeian tribunes)
legem proponere in publicumto bring a law before the notice of the people
edictum proponere (Att. 2. 21. 4)to publish, post up an edict
legem in aes incīdereto engrave a law upon a brazen tablet
lex rata est (opp. irrita)a law is valid
legem ratam esse iubereto declare a law valid
a lege discedereto transgress a law
salvis legibus (vid. sect. X. 7, note Notice...)without breaking the law
lex iubet, vetat (dilucide, planissime)the law orders, forbids (expressly, distinctly)
in lege scriptum est, or simply estthe law says..
sententia or voluntas legisthe spirit of the law
leges scribere, facere, condere, constituere (not dare)to make laws (of a legislator)
legum scriptor, conditor, inventora legislator
qui leges scribit (not legum lator)a legislator
in legem iurare (Sest. 16. 37)to swear obedience to a law
lege tenerito be bound by a law
legibus solvereto free from legal obligations
ea lege, uton condition of..
aliquid contra legem esta thing is illegal
acta rescindere, dissolvere (Phil. 13. 3. 5)to declare a magistrate's decisions null and void
in album referre (De Or. 2. 12. 52)to record in the official tablets (Annales maximi)
aura favoris popularis (Liv. 22. 26)popular favour; popularity
populi favor, gratia popularispopular favour; popularity
aura popularis (Harusp. 18. 43)popular favour; popularity
auram popularem captare (Liv. 3. 33)to court popularity
gratiam populi quaerereto court popularity
aurae popularis homo (Liv. 42. 30)a popular man
ventum popularem quendam (in aliqua re) quaerereto strive to gain popular favour by certain means
gratiosum esse (opp. invisum esse)to be popular, influential
opibus, gratia, auctoritate valere, florereto have great influence
opes, gratiam, potentiam consequito acquire influence
gratiam inire apud aliquem, ab aliquo (cf. sect. V. 12)to gain some one's favour
crescere ex aliquoto raise oneself by another's fall
crescere ex invidia senatoriato profit by the unpopularity of the senate to gain influence oneself
iacēre (vid. sect. VII. 1, note iacēre...)to be politically annihilated
existimatio populi, hominumpublic opinion
multum communi hominum opinioni tribuereto be always considering what people think
invidiaunpopularity
offensio populi, popularisunpopularity
offensa populi voluntasunpopularity
invidia dictatoria (Liv. 22. 26)the feeling against the dictator
ex invidia alicuius auram popularem petere (Liv. 22. 26)to use some one's unpopularity as a means of making oneself popular
partes (usually of plebeians)a party; faction
factio (of aristocrats)a party; faction
partium studium, also simply studiaparty-spirit
partium studiosum esseto be a strong partisan
certamen partiumparty-strife
contentio partium (Phil. 5. 12. 32)party-strife
partium studiis divisum esseto be torn by faction
consiliorum in re publica sociusa political ally
alicuius partes (causam) or simply aliquem sequito embrace the cause of..., be a partisan of..
alicuius partibus studereto embrace the cause of..., be a partisan of..
ab (cum) aliquo stare (Brut. 79. 273)to be on a person's side (not ab alicuius partibus)
alicuius studiosum esseto be a follower of some one
cum aliquo facere (Sull. 13. 36)to take some one's side
nullius or neutrius (of two) partis esseto be neutral
in neutris partibus esseto be neutral
neutram partem sequito be neutral
medium esseto be neutral
medium se gerereto be neutral
a partibus rei publicae animus liber (Sall. Cat. 4. 2)an independent spirit
idem de re publica sentireto have the same political opinions
ab aliquo in re publica dissentireto hold different views in politics
ex rei publicae dissensioneowing to political dissension
in duas partes discedere (Sall. Iug. 13. 1)to divide into two factions
studio ad rem publicam ferrito throw oneself heart and soul into politics
se civilibus fluctibus committereto enter the whirlpool of political strife
imperium singulare, unius dominatus, regium imperiummonarchy
optimatium dominatusaristocracy (as a form of government)
civitas, quae optimatium arbitrio regituraristocracy (as a form of government)
boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam aguntthe aristocracy (as a party in politics)
principes or primoresthe aristocracy (as a leading class in government)
nobiles; nobilitas; qui nobilitate generis excelluntthe aristocracy (as a social class)
paucorum dominatio or potentiaoligarchy
multitudinis dominatus or imperiumgovernment by the mob
spiritus patricii (Liv. 4. 42)patrician arrogance; pride of caste
homines graves (opp. leves)men of sound opinions
homo popularisa democrat
homo vere popularis (Catil. 4. 5. 9)a man who genuinely wishes the people's good
homo florens in populari rationea democratic leader
imperium populi or populare, civitas or res publica popularisdemocracy
causam popularem suscipere or defendereto take up the cause of the people, democratic principles
populi causam agereto be a leading spirit of the popular cause
patriae amantem (amantissimum) esse (Att. 9. 22)to be (very) patriotic
mundanus, mundi civis et incola (Tusc. 5. 37)a citizen of the world; cosmopolitan
plebis dux, vulgi turbator, civis turbulentus, civis rerum novarum cupidusa demagogue, agitator
iactatio, concitatio popularispopular agitation
artes popularestricks of a demagogue
populariter agereto play the demagogue
conversio rei publicae (Div. 2. 2. 6)revolution
homines seditiosi, turbulenti or novarum rerum cupidirevolutionists
novis rebus studereto hold revolutionary opinions
novarum rerum cupidum esseto hold revolutionary opinions
novas res moliri (Verr. 2. 125)to plot a revolution
contra rem publicam sentireto foster revolutionary projects
contra rem publicam facereto be guilty of high treason
a re publica deficereto betray the interests of the state
plebem concitare, sollicitareto stir up the lower classes
seditionem facere, concitareto cause a rebellion
seditio erumpita rebellion breaks out
coniurare (inter se) de c. Gerund. or ut...to form a conspiracy
coniurationem facere (Catil. 2. 4. 6)to form a conspiracy
conspirare cum aliquo (contra aliquem)to conspire with some one
rem publicam labefactareto shake the stability of the state
rem publicam perturbareto throw the state into confusion
statum rei publicae convellereto endanger the existence of the state
rem publicam vexareto damage the state
rem publicam funditus evertereto completely overthrow the government, the state
omnes leges confundereto upset the whole constitution
omnia turbare ac miscereto cause universal disorder
perturbatio omnium rerum (Flacc. 37)general confusion; anarchy
omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur (B. C. 1. 6. 8)anarchy reigns supreme
leges nullaelawlessness; anarchy
iudicia nullalawlessness; anarchy
res fluit ad interregnumthings seem tending towards an interregnum
non nullus odor est dictaturae (Att. 4. 18)there are whispers of the appointment of a dictator
tumultum sedare (B. C. 3. 18. 3)to quell an outbreak
concitatam multitudinem reprimereto allay the excitement of the mob
plebem continereto hold the people in one's power, in check
proscribere aliquem or alicuius possessionesto proscribe a person, declare him an outlaw
aqua et igni interdicere alicuito proscribe a person, declare him an outlaw
in proscriptorum numerum referre aliquem (Rosc. Am. 11. 32)to place a person's name on the list of the proscribed
e proscriptorum numero eximere aliquemto erase a person's name from the list of the proscribed
bona alicuius publicare (B. G. 5. 54)to confiscate a person's property
bona alicui restituereto restore to a person his confiscated property
in exsilium eicere or expellere aliquemto banish a person, send him into exile
ex urbe (civitate) expellere, pellere aliquemto banish a person, send him into exile
de, e civitate aliquem eicereto banish a person, send him into exile
exterminare (ex) urbe, de civitate aliquem (Mil. 37. 101)to expel a person from the city, country
e patria exire iubere aliquemto banish a man from his native land
patria carereto be in exile
interdicere alicui Italiāto banish a person from Italy
aliquem exsilio afficere, multareto punish by banishment
in exsilium ire, pergere, proficiscito go into exile
exsulatum ire or abireto go into exile
solum vertere, mutare (Caecin. 34. 100)to leave one's country (only used of exiles)
exsulare (Div. 2. 24. 52)to live in exile
in exsilio esse, exsulem esseto live in exile
aliquem (in patriam) restituereto recall from exile
in patriam redireto return from exile
ante actarum (praeteritarum) rerum oblivio or simply oblivioamnesty (ἀμνηρτία)
omnem memoriam discordiarum oblivione sempiterna delere (Phil. 1. 1. 1)to proclaim a general amnesty
postliminium (De Or. 1. 40. 181)a returning from exile to one's former privileges
imperium, rerum summam deferre alicuito confer supreme power on a person
rem publicam alicui permittereto give some one unlimited power in state affairs
imperium tenere (in aliquem)to have power over some one
imperium obtinereto maintain power, authority
principatu deici (B. G. 7. 63)to be deposed from one's leading position
cum imperio esse (cf. XVI. 3)to have unlimited power; to be invested with imperium
in imperio esseto hold a high office (such as conferred imperium, i.e. consulatus, dictatura, praetura)
imperium in annum prorogareto prolong the command for a year
imperium deponere (Rep. 2. 12. 23)to lay down one's power
imperium singulareabsolute power; autocracy
dominari in aliquemto have unlimited power over a person
imperium, regnum, tyrannidem occupareto take upon oneself absolute power
rerum potiri(1) to usurp supreme power, (2) to be in a position of power
dominatio impotensdespotic, tyrannous rule
potestas immoderata, infinitadespotic, tyrannous rule
tyrannidem concupiscereto aspire to a despotism
tyrannidem sibi parere aliqua reto establish oneself as despot, tyrant by some means
regnum appetere (B. G. 7. 4)to aspire to the sovereignty
regnum adipiscito obtain the sovereignty, kingly office
alicui regnum deferre, tradereto invest some one with royal power
aliquem regem, tyrannum constituereto establish some one as king, tyrant
regem restituereto restore a king to his throne (not in solium)
aliquem in regnum restituereto restore a king to his throne (not in solium)
aliquem regno spoliare or expellere (Div. 1. 22. 74)to depose a king
regios spiritus sibi sumereto assume a despotic tone
servitute premi (Phil. 4. 1. 3)to languish in slavery
liberum populum servitute afficereto enslave a free people
aliquem in servitutem redigereto reduce to slavery
alicui servitutem iniungere, imponereto lay the yoke of slavery on some one
civitatem servitute oppressam tenere (Dom. 51. 131)to keep the citizens in servile subjection
libertatem populo eripereto rob a people of its freedom
populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse patito grant a people its independence
aliquem in servitutem abducere, abstrahereto carry off into slavery
aliquem sub corona vendere (B. G. 3. 16)to sell a prisoner of war as a slave
iugum servitutis accipereto submit to the yoke of slavery
libertas, libertatis studiumindependent spirit
imperium oppugnare, percellereto attack, overthrow a tyranny
ad libertatem conclamareto summon to liberty
ad arma conclamare (Liv. 3. 50)to call to arms
vincula rumpereto burst one's chains
iugum servitutis excutereto shake off the yoke of slavery
iugum servile a cervicibus deicere (Phil. 1. 2. 6)to shake off the yoke of slavery
servitutem exuere (Liv. 34. 7)to shake off the yoke of slavery
iugum servile alicui demereto deliver some one from slavery
ab aliquo servitutem or servitutis iugum depellereto deliver some one from slavery
dominationem or dominatum refringereto destroy a despotism, tyranny
regios spiritus reprimere (Nep. Dion. 5. 5)to destroy a despotism, tyranny
libertatem recuperareto recover liberty
rem publicam in libertatem vindicare a or ex dominationeto deliver the state from a tyranny
vectigalia redimere, conducereto farm the revenues
vectigalia exercere (vid. sect. V. 7, note The first...)to collect the taxes
vectigalia exigere (acerbe)to exact the taxes (with severity)
pecuniam cogere a civitatibusto extort money from the communities
vectigalia, tributa pendereto pay taxes
immunis (tributorum) (Verr. 5. 21. 51)exempt from taxation
immunitatem omnium rerum habereto enjoy absolute immunity
vectigalia, tributa alicui imponereto impose tribute on some one
tributorum multitudine premito be crushed by numerous imposts
ager publicuspublic land; state domain
agros assignare (Leg. Agr. 1. 6. 17)to allot land
pecunia publica, quae ex metallis reditthe public income from the mines
avertere pecuniam (Verr. 2. 1. 4)to embezzle money
peculatum facere (Rab. Perd. 3. 8)to embezzle money
rem publicam quaestui habereto enrich oneself at the expense of the state
coloniam deducere in aliquem locum (vid. sect. XII. 1, note Notice too...)to found a colony somewhere
colōnos mittere (Div. 1. 1. 3)to send out colonists
coloniam constituere (Leg. Agr. 1. 5. 16)to found a colony
provinciam alicui decernere, mandareto entrust some one with an official duty, a province
provincias sortiri (Liv. 38. 35)to draw lots for the provinces
alicui Syria (sorte) obvēnit, obtigitthe province of Syria has fallen to some one's lot
provincias inter se comparant(the magistrates) arrange among themselves the administration of the provinces, the offical spheres of duty
in provinciam proficisci (Liv. 38. 35)to set out for one's province
provincias permutareto exchange provinces
provinciam administrare, obtinereto manage, govern a province
provinciam obireto visit, traverse a province
(de or ex) provincia decedere or simply decedere (vid. sect. II. 4, note Cf. especially...)to leave a province (at the termination of one's term of office)
CandidatureElection
petere magistratum, honoresto seek office
ambire aliquem (always with Acc. of person)to solicit the vote or favour of some one
nomen profiteri or simply profiterito become a candidate
manus prensare (De Or. 1. 24. 112)to shake hands with voters in canvassing
nomina appellat (nomenclator)the agent (nomenclator) mentions the names of constituents to the canvasser
competītor (Brut. 30. 113)a rival candidate
multa (pauca) puncta in centuria (tribu) aliqua ferreto obtain many (few) votes in a century or tribe
centuriam, tribum ferre (Planc. 49)to gain the vote of a century or tribe
omnes centurias ferre or omnium suffragiis, cunctis centuriis crearito be elected unanimously
repulsam ferre consulatus (a populo) (Tusc. 5. 19. 54)to fail in one's candidature for the consulship
magistratus vitio creatimagistrates elected irregularly (i.e. either when the auspices have been unfavourable or when some formality has been neglected)
sufficere aliquem in alicuius locum or alicuito elect a man to fill the place of another who has died whilst in office
alicui or in alicuius locum succedereto succeed a person in an office
alicui imperatori succedereto succeed some one as general
suo (legitimo) anno creari (opp. ante annum)to be elected at the age required by law (lex Villia annalis)
continuare magistratum (Sall. Iug. 37. 2)to continue one's office for another year
continuare alicui magistratumto prolong some one's office for another year
prorogare alicui imperium (in annum)to prolong a person's command
magistratus et imperia (Sall. Iug. 3. 1)civil and military offices
inire magistratumto enter into office
munus administrare, gerereto perform official duties
munere fungi, muneri praeesseto perform official duties
honores alicui mandare, deferreto invest a person with a position of dignity
muneri aliquem praeficere, praeponereto appoint some one to an office
munus explere, sustinereto fulfil the duties of one's position
abdicare se magistratu (Div. 2. 35)to resign one's post (before the expiry of the term of office)
deponere magistratumto give up, lay down office (usually at the end of one's term of office)
abire magistratuto give up, lay down office (usually at the end of one's term of office)
de potestate decedereto give up, lay down office (usually at the end of one's term of office)
res ad interregnum venit or adducituran interregnum ensues
abrogare alicui munus (Verr. 2. 57)to remove a person from his office
abrogare alicui imperiumto deprive a person of his position as commandant
viri clari et honorati (De Sen. 7. 22)men of rank and dignity
honoribus ac reipublicae muneribus perfunctus (De Or. 1. 45)a man who has held many offices
amplis honoribus usus (Sall. Iug. 25. 4)a man who has held many offices
consulem creareto elect a consul
aliquem consulem declarare (Leg. Agr. 2. 2. 4)to declare a person consul-elect
aliquem consulem renuntiare (De Or. 2. 64. 260)to offically proclaim (by the praeco, herald) a man elected consul; to return a man consul
bis consultwice consul
iterum, tertium consulconsul for the second, third time
sextum (Pis. 9. 20), septimum consulconsul for the sixth, seventh time
videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state
in hoc praeclaro consulatuduring this brilliant consulship
aetas consularisthe consular age (43 years)
pro consule in Ciliciam proficiscito go to Cilicia as pro-consul
superiore consulatuin his former consulship
dictatorem dicere (creare)to name a person dictator
dictaturam gerereto be dictator
dictator dicit (legit) magistrum equituma dictator appoints a magister equitum
potestatem habet in aliquem vitae necisque (B. G. 1. 16. 5)he has power over life and death
lictores summovent turbam (Liv. 4. 50)the lictors clear the way
fasces praeferre, summittereto walk before with the fasces; to lower the fasces
censores censent populumthe censors hold a census of the people
censum habere, agere (Liv. 3. 22)to hold the census
censuram agere, gerereto perform the censors' duties
locare aedes, vias faciendas (Phil. 9. 7. 16)to receive tenders for the construction of temples, highroads
locare opera publicato let out public works to contract
redimere, conducere porticum aedificandam (Div. 2. 21. 47)to undertake a contract for building a portico
nota, animadversio censoriathe reprimand of a censor
notare aliquem ignominia (Cluent. 43. 119)to brand a person with infamy
censu prohibere, excludereto strike off the burgess-roll
tribu movere aliquemto expel some one from his tribe
e senatu eicereto expel from the senate
senatu movereto expel from the senate
lustrum condere (Liv. 1. 44. 2)to complete the censorship (by certain formal purificatory ceremonies = lustro faciendo)
tribuni plebis sacrosancti (Liv. 3. 19. 10)the plebeian tribunes, whose persons are inviolable
appellare tribunos plebis (in aliqua re a praetore) (Liv. 2. 55)to appeal to the plebeian tribunes against a praetor's decision
provocare ad populum (Liv. 2. 55)to appeal to the people
intercessio tribunicia (cf. sect. XIV. 5)the tribunicial veto
publicum consilium (Phil. 7.7. 19)the council of the nation; the senate
in senatum legere, eligereto elect to the senate
senatum vocare, convocareto call a meeting of the senate
senatum cogere (Liv. 3. 39)to assemble the senate
edicere, ut senatus frequens adsit (Fam. 11. 6. 2)to issue a proclamation calling on the senators to assemble in full force
senatum habereto hold a sitting of the senate
ad senatum referre (Cic. Dom. 53. 136)to bring a question before the senate (of the presiding magistrate)
patres (senatum) consulere de aliqua re (Sall. Iug. 28)to consult the senators on a matter
sententiam rogare, interrogareto ask the opinion of..
sententiam dicereto give an opinion (also used of a judge, cf. sect. VI. 4)
senatus sententia inclīnat ad... (De Sen. 6. 16)the senate inclines to the opinion, decides for..
sententia vincit (Liv. 2. 4. 3)the majority were of the opinion..
maior parsthe majority
quid censes? quid tibi videtur?what is your opinion?
quid de ea re fieri placet?what is your opinion?
discessionem facere (Sest. 34. 74)to take the vote (by division)
discedere (pedibus), ire in alicuius sententiam (Liv. 23. 10)to vote for some one's motion
senatus decrevit (populusque iussit) utthe senate decreed (and the people ratified the decree) that..
senatus consultum fit (Att. 2. 24. 3)a resolution of the senate (not opposed by a tribunicial veto) was made
senatus auctoritasthe opinion of the senate in general
senatum alicui dare (Q. Fr. 2. 11. 2)to give a man audience before the senate
a senatu res ad populum reicitura matter is referred (for decision) from the senate to the people
dicendi mora diem extrahere, eximere, tollereto pass the whole day in discussion
dimittere senatumto dismiss the senate
nox senatum dirimitnight breaks up the sitting
ius dicereto administer justice (said of the praetor)
ius reddere (Liv. 3. 33)to administer justice (said of the praetor)
ius suum persequito assert one's right
ius suum adipisci (Liv. 1. 32. 10)to obtain justice
ius suum tenere, obtinereto maintain one's right
de iure suo decedere or cedereto waive one's right
(ex) iure, lege agere cum aliquoto go to law with a person
summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour
in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquemto summon some one before the court
diem dicere alicuito summon some one to appear on a given day; to accuse a person
in iudicium venire, in iudicio adesseto appear in court
iudicia administrareto have charge of the administration of justice
iudicium exercere (vid. sect. V. 7, note The first...)to administer justice; to judge (used of criminal cases before the praetor)
iudicio praeesseto be president of a court
conventus agere (B. G. 1. 54)to convene the assizes (used of a provincial governor)
quaestiones perpetuae (Brut. 27. 106)the standing commissions of inquiry
aliquem in integrum (vid. sect. V. 4, note The proper...) restituereto reinstate a person in his right
respondere (de iure or ius)to give a legal opinion, decision on points of law
cavere (in iure) (Off. 2. 65)to point out what precautions, what formal steps must be taken to insure immunity
agereto be energetic in the conduct of the case; to plead before the judge
aequum iudicem se alicui praebereto judge some one equitably
ex aequo et bono (Caecin. 23. 65)justly and equitably
iudex incorruptusan impartial judge
ratio iudiciorumjudicial organisation
aequa iuris descriptio (Off. 2. 4. 15)a sound judicial system
aequo iure vivere cum aliquoto live with some one on an equal footing
iustitium indicere, edicere (Phil. 5. 12)to proclaim that the courts are closed, a cessation of legal business
iustitium remittereto re-open the courts
ius ad artem redigereto reduce law to a system
ius nullumabsence of justice
ius ac fas omne delereto trample all law under foot
omnia iura pervertereto trample all law under foot
contra ius fasqueagainst all law, human and divine
optimo iurewith full right
ius praecipuum, beneficium, donum, also immunitas c. Gen.prerogative, privilege
aliquid, causam cognoscereto hold an inquiry into a matter
quaerere aliquid or de aliqua reto hold an inquiry into a matter
quaestionem habere de aliquo, de aliqua re or in aliquemto examine a person, a matter
quaestioni praeesseto preside over an inquiry
quaesītorthe examining judge
incognita causa (cf. sect. XV. 3, indicta causa)without any examination
in tabulas publicas referre aliquidto enter a thing in the public records
deprehendere aliquem (in aliqua re)to catch a person, find him out
deprehendere aliquem in manifesto scelereto take a person in the act
testis gravisan important witness
testis locuplesa witness worthy of all credit
testis incorruptus atque integeran impartial witness
aliquem testem alicuius rei (in aliquid) citareto cite a person to give evidence on a matter
aliquem testem adhibereto use some one's evidence
aliquo teste utito use some one's evidence
aliquem testem dare, edere, proferreto produce as a witness
aliquem testem producereto produce as a witness
testem prodire (in aliquem)to appear as witness against a person
testimonium dicere pro aliquoto give evidence on some one's behalf
pro testimonio dicereto state as evidence
testibus teneri, convictum esseto be convicted by some one's evidence
alicui admovere tormentato have a person tortured
quaerere tormentis de aliquoto have a person tortured
de servis quaerere (in dominum)to examine slaves by torture
cruciatūs tormentorumthe pains of torture
aliquem a ceteris separare et in arcam conicere ne quis cum eo colloqui possit (Mil. 22. 60)to isolate a witness
causa privataa civil case
causa publica (Brut. 48. 178)a criminal case
causam alicuius agere (apud iudicem)to conduct a person's case (said of an agent, solicitor)
causam dicere, orare (Brut. 12. 47)to address the court (of the advocate)
causam dicereto defend oneself before the judge (of the accused)
causam dicere pro aliquoto defend a person
causam alicuius defendereto conduct some one's defence in a case
causam optimam habere (Lig. 4. 10)to have a good case
causam inferiorem dicendo reddere superiorem (λόγον κρείττω ποιειν) (Brut. 8. 30)to gain a weak case by clever pleading
patronus (causae) (De Or. 2. 69)counsel; advocate
causam suscipereto undertake a case
ad causam aggredi or accedereto undertake a case
indicta causa (opp. cognita causa)without going to law
litem alicui intendereto go to law with, sue a person
adhuc sub iudice lis est (Hor. A. P. 77)the case is still undecided
lites componere (Verg. Ecl. 3. 108)to arrange a dispute (by arbitration)
causam or litem obtinereto win a case
causā or iudicio vincereto win a case
causam or litem amittere, perdereto lose one's case
causā or lite cadere (owing to some informality)to lose one's case
calumniae litium (Mil. 27. 74)chicanery (specially of wrongfully accusing an innocent man)
accusatio (Cael. 3. 6)a criminal accusation
actio, petitioa private, civil prosecution
nomen alicuius deferre (apud praetorem) (Verr. 2. 38. 94)to accuse, denounce a person
referre in reos aliquemto put some one on the list of the accused
eximere de reis aliquemto strike a person's name off the list of the accused
aliquis reus fit (Fam. 13. 54)some one is accused
iudices reicere (Verr. 3. 11. 28)to challenge, reject jurymen
crimina diluere, dissolvereto refute charges
accusare aliquem rei capitalis (rerum capitalium)to charge some one with a capital offence
caput alicuius agitur (vid. sect. V. 8)a person's life is in jeopardy
accusare aliquem peculatus, pecuniae publicaeto accuse some one of malversation, embezzlement of public money
accusare aliquem falsarum tabularumto accuse a person of forging the archives
postulare aliquem repetundarum or de repetundisto accuse a person of extortion (to recover the sums extorted)
accusare aliquem perduellionisto charge a person with treason (hostile conduct against the state generally)
accusare aliquem maiestatisto accuse a person of high treason (more specific than the preceding)
accusare aliquem ambitus, de ambituto accuse some one of illegal canvassing
accusare aliquem de vi, de veneficiisto accuse a person of violence, poisoning
accusare aliquem inter sicarios (Rosc. Am. 32. 90)to accuse a person of assassination
sententiae iudicumthe finding of the jury
sententiam ferre, dicere (Off. 3. 16. 66)to give sentence (of the judge, cf. sect. VI. 4, note Not...)
iudicare causam (de aliqua re)to decide on the conduct of the case
iudicium rescindereto rescind a decision
res iudicatas rescindere (Cic. Sull. 22. 63)to rescind a decision
lege Plautia damnari (Sall. Cat. 31. 4)to be condemned under the Lex Plautia
in culpa esseto be at fault; to blame; culpable
culpa alicuius rei est in aliquosome one is to blame in a matter; it is some one's fault
mea culpa estit is my fault
culpa carere, vacareto be free from blame
extra culpam esseto be free from blame
abesse a culpato be free from blame
prope abesse a culpato be almost culpable
affinem esse culpaeto be almost culpable
culpam in aliquem conferre, transferre, conicereto put the blame on another
culpam alicui attribuere, assignareto attribute the fault to some one
aliquid alicui crimini dare, vitio vertere (Verr. 5. 50)to reproach, blame a person for..
culpam committere, contrahereto commit some blameworthy action
facinus, culpam in se admittereto commit some blameworthy action
non committere, ut...to take care not to..
culpam alicuius rei sustinereto bear the blame of a thing
culpam a se amovereto exonerate oneself from blame
veniam dare alicuito pardon a person
poena afficere aliquem (Off. 2. 5. 18)to punish some one
animadvertere in aliquemto punish some one
punire aliquemto punish some one
ulcisci aliquem (pro aliqua re)to punish some one
poenas alicuius persequito exact a penalty from some one
poenam petere, repetere ab aliquoto exact a penalty from some one
poenas expetere ab aliquoto exact a penalty from some one
supplicium sumere de aliquoto exact a penalty from some one
hanc poenam constituere in aliquem, ut...to ordain as punishment that..
graviter consulere in aliquem (Liv. 8. 13)to deal severely with a person
poenas (graves) dare alicuito be (heavily) punished by some one
poenas alicui pendere (alicuius rei)to be punished by some one (on account of a thing)
poenas dependere, expendere, solvere, persolvereto suffer punishment
poenam (alicuius rei) ferre, perferreto suffer punishment
poenam luere (alicuius rei) (Sull. 27. 76)to be punished for a thing, expiate it
luere aliquid aliqua re (De Sen. 20)to atone for something by..
poenam subireto submit to a punishment
pecunia multare aliquemto condemn some one to a fine
multam irrogare alicui (Cic. Dom. 17. 45)to impose a fine (used of the prosecutor or the tribunus plebis proposing a fine to be ratified by the people)
decem milibus aeris damnarito be fined 10,000 asses
in vincula (custodiam) dare aliquemto put some one in irons, chains
in vincula, in catenas conicere aliquemto put some one in irons, chains
in carcerem conicere aliquemto throw some one into prison
capitis or capite damnare aliquemto condemn some one to death
capitis absolvere aliquemto repeal a death-sentence passed on a person
supplicium alicui decernere, in aliquem constituereto decree the penalty of death
Solo capite sanxit, si quis... (Att. 10. 1)Solon made it a capital offence to..
morte multare aliquem (Catil. 1. 11. 28)to punish any one with death
supplicium sumere de aliquoto execute the death-sentence on a person
supplicio (capitis) afficito suffer capital punishment
ad palum deligare (Liv. 2. 5)to bind to the stake
virgis caedereto beat with rods
securi percutere, ferire aliquemto execute a person, cut off his head
in crucem agere, tollere aliquemto crucify
cruci suffigere aliquemto crucify
impune fecisse, tulisse aliquidto go unpunished
impunitum aliquem dimittereto let a person go scot-free
mortem deprecari (B. G. 7. 40. 6)to beg for life
aetas militarismilitary age
qui arma ferre possunt or iuventusmen of military age
qui per aetatem arma ferre non possunt or aetate ad bellum inutilesmen exempt from service owing to age
exercitum conficere (Imp. Pomp. 21. 61)to raise an army
milites (exercitum) scribere, conscribereto levy troops
dilectum habereto hold a levy
imperare milites civitatibusto compel communities to provide troops
nomen (nomina) dare, profiterito enlist oneself
ad nomen non respondere (Liv. 7. 4)to fail to answer one's name
militiam (only in the sing.) capessereto take service in the army
militiam detrectare, subterfugereto try to avoid military service
excusare morbum, valetudinemto plead ill-health as an excuse for absence
militiae vacationem habereto be excused military duty
equo, pedibus merere (Liv. 27. 11)to serve in the cavalry, infantry
sacramentum (o) dicere (vid. sect. XI. 2, note sacramentum...)to take the military oath
milites sacramento rogare, adigereto make soldiers take the military oath
evocare undique copiasto call up troops from all sides
evocati, voluntarii (B. G. 5. 56)the volunteers
omnes ad arma convocareto issue a general call to arms
efficere duas legionesto form two legions
complere legiones (B. C. 1. 25)to fill up the numbers of the legions
supplementum cogere, scribere, legereto levy recruits to fill up the strength
auxilia arcessereto summon auxiliary troops
copias (arma) cum aliquo iungere or se cum aliquo iungereto join forces with some one
conducere, contrahere copiasto concentrate troops
cogere omnes copias in unum locumto concentrate all the troops at one point
parare exercitum, copiasto equip an army, troops
alere exercitum (Off. 1. 8. 25)to support an army
recensere, lustrare, recognoscere exercitum (Liv. 42. 31)to review an army
dimittere exercitumto disband an army
commeatum militibus dare (opp. petere)to give furlough, leave of absence to soldiers
magnae copiae (not multae)a large force, many troops
exiguae copiae (Fam. 3. 3. 2)a small force
ingens, maximus exercitus (not numerosus)a numerous army
robora peditumthe flower of the infantry
milites levis armaturaelight infantry
vetus miles, veteranus milesveterans; experienced troops
qui magnum in castris usum habentveterans; experienced troops
expeditus (opp. impeditus) milesa soldier lightly armed, ready for battle
exercitatus in armispractised in arms
milites tumultuarii (opp. exercitus iustus) (Liv. 35. 2)soldiers collected in haste; irregulars
tironesrecruits
stipendium dare, numerare, persolvere militibusto pay the troops
stipendia facere, merereto serve
emeritis stipendiis (Sall. Iug. 84. 2)after having completed one's service
militia functum, perfunctum esseto retire from service
rude donatum esse (Phil. 2. 29)to retire from service
milites mercennarii or exercitus conducticiusmercenary troops
rem frumentariam comparare, providereto look after the commissariat
rei frumentariae prospicere (B. G. 1. 23)to look after the commissariat
frumentum providere exercituito provide corn-supplies for the troops
frumenti vim maximam comparareto procure a very large supply of corn
intercludere commeatumto cut off the supplies, intercept them
intercludere, prohibere hostes commeatuto cut off all supplies of the enemy
praeficere aliquem exercituito place some one at the head of an army, give him the command
praeficere aliquem bello gerendoto charge some one with the conduct of a war
praeesse exercituito be at the head of an army
magnum usum in re militari habere (Sest. 5. 12)to possess great experience in military matters
rei militaris rudem esseto have had no experience in war
vir fortissimusa hero
magnas res gerereto perform heroic exploits
res fortiter feliciterque gestaa success; a glorious feat of arms
res bene gestaa success; a glorious feat of arms
res gestaeexploits in war; brilliant actions
summa belli, imperii (B. G. 2. 4. 7)the command-in-chief
cum imperio esseto hold a high command
imperii summam tenere (Rep. 2. 28)to be commander-in-chief
imperii summae praeesseto be commander-in-chief
imperii summam deferre alicui or ad aliquem, tradere alicuito appoint some one commander-in-chief
imperium transfertur ad aliquem (not transit)the command is transferred, passes to some one
imperium alicui abrogare (Off.3. 10)to depose a person from his command
modestia (opp. immodestia)discipline (insubordination)
dicto audientem esse alicuito obey a person's orders
milites disciplina coercereto keep good discipline amongst one's men
milites coercere et in officio continere (B. C. 1. 67. 4)to keep good discipline amongst one's men
arma capere, sumereto take up one's arms
arma expedire (Tusc. 2. 16. 37)to make ready for battle
galeam induereto put on one's helmet
armis (castris) exuere aliquemto disarm a person
arma ponere (not deponere)to pile arms (cf. sect. XII. 3, note vestem deponere...)
ab armis discedere (Phil. 11. 33)to lay down arms
in armis esseto be under arms
cum telo esseto be armed
extorquere arma e manibusto wrest weapons from some one's hands
res ad arma venitmatters have reached the fighting-stage
tela iacere, conicere, mittereto discharge missiles
extra teli iactum, coniectum esseto be out of range
ad teli coniectum venire (Liv. 2. 31)to come within javelin-range
se obicere telisto expose oneself to missiles
eminus hastis, comminus gladiis utito use javelins at a distance, swords at close quarters
gladium educere (e vagīna)to draw one's sword (from the scabbard)
gladium in vaginam recondereto sheath one's sword
gladium stringere, destringereto draw one's sword
gladium alicui in pectus infigereto plunge one's sword in some one's breast
gladio aliquem per pectus transfigere (Liv. 2. 46)to transfix, pierce a man's breast with one's sword
sicam, cultrum in corde alicuius defigere (Liv. 1. 58)to plunge a dagger, knife in some one's heart
decurrere (in armis)to manœuvre
vi et armisby force of arms
bellum parareto make preparations for war
apparatus (rare in plur.) bellipreparations for war; war-material
bellum indīcere, denuntiareto make formal declaration of war
res repetere (ab aliquo) (Off. 1. 11. 36)to demand satisfaction, restitution
res reddere (alicui) (cf. sect. V. 11)to make restitution
bellum iustum (pium)a regular, formal war
bellum intestinum, domesticum (opp. bellum externum)a civil war
bellum facere, movere, excitareto cause a war
bellum conflare (Fam. 5. 2. 8)to kindle a war
bellum molirito meditate war
bellum incipere, belli initium facere (B. G. 7. 1. 5)to commence hostilities
bello se interponere (Liv. 35. 48)to interfere in a war
bello implicarito be involved in a war
bellum cum aliquo inireto begin a war with some one
bellum impendet, imminet, instata war is imminent
bellum oritur, exardescitwar breaks out
omnia bello flagrant or ardent (Fam. 4. 1. 2)everywhere the torch of war is flaming
bellum gerere cum aliquoto make war on a person
bellum coniungere (Imp. Pomp. 9. 26)to wage war in conjunction with some one
bellum ducere, trahere, extrahereto protract, prolong a war
omni studio in (ad) bellum incumbereto carry on a war energetically
bellum inferre alicui (Att. 9. 1. 3)to invade
bellum or arma ultro inferreto be the aggressor in a war; to act on the offensive
bellum (inlatum) defendereto act on the defensive
proficisci ad bellum, in expeditionem (Sall. Iug. 103)to go to war, commence a campaign
mittere ad bellumto send to the war
bellum administrareto have the control of the war
bello persequi aliquem, lacessereto harass with war
belli finem facere, bellum finireto put an end to war
bellum conficere, perficereto terminate a war (by force of arms and defeat of one's opponents)
bellum componere (Fam. 10. 33)to terminate a war (by a treaty, etc.)
bellum transferre alio, in...to transfer the seat of war elsewhere
belli sedes (Liv. 4. 31)the seat of war, theatre of operations
rationem belli gerendi mutare (Liv. 32. 31)to change one's tactics
agmen medium (Liv. 10. 41)the centre of the marching column
agmen primumthe vanguard
agmen novissimum (extremum)the rearguard
agmen claudere, cogereto bring up the rear
signa ferre, tollereto begin the march, break up the camp
castra movereto begin the march, break up the camp
agmen agereto set the army in motion
procedere cum exercituto advance with the army
magnis itineribus (Sall. Iug. 37)by forced marches
quam maximis itineribus (potest)by the longest possible forced marches
citatum agmen rapereto lead the army with forced marches
raptim agmen ducereto lead the army with forced marches
citato gradu incedere (cf. sect. II. 5)to advance rapidly
loca, regiones, loci naturam explorareto reconnoitre the ground
iter facereto march
iter conficere (B. C. 1. 70)to traverse a route
iter maturare, accelerareto quicken the pace of marching
iter continuare (B. C. 3. 11)to march without interruption
iter non intermitterenot to interrupt the march
iter flectere, convertere, avertereto deviate, change the direction
signa convertere (B. G. 1. 25)to deviate, change the direction
averso itinere contendere in...to change one's route and march towards..
iter tentare per vim (cf. sect. II. 3)to force a way, a passage
agmen, exercitum demittere in...to march down on to..
exercitum admovere, adducere ad...to advance on..
signa sequi (opp. a signis discedere, signa relinquere)to follow the standards
ordines servare (B. G. 4. 26)to keep the ranks
confertis, solutis ordinibuswith close ranks; with ranks in disorder
raris ordinibusin open order
ordines turbare, perrumpereto break the ranks
agmine quadrato incedere, ireto march with closed ranks, in order of battle
agmine duplici, tripliciin two, three columns
novissimos premereto press the rearguard
novissimos turbareto throw the rearguard into confusion
novissimos carpereto harass the rear
novissimis praesidio esseto protect the troops in the rear
opprimere hostes (imprudentes, incautos, inopinantes)to surprise and defeat the enemy
subsistere, consistereto halt
gradum sistereto halt
capere, occupare locumto occupy a position (with troops)
occupare loca superiorato occupy the high ground
praeoccupare locum (Liv. 35. 27)to occupy a place beforehand
tenere montem (B. G. 1. 22)to hold a mountain
consistere in monteto take up one's position on a mountain
considere sub monte (sub montis radicibus)to occupy the foot of a hill
praesidiis firmare urbemto garrison a town
praesidium collocare in urbeto garrison a town
praesidia, custodias disponereto station posts, pickets, at intervals
vigilias crebras ponere (Sall. Iug. 45. 2)to place a close line of sentry-posts
castra stativa (Sall. Iug. 44)a permanent camp
castra hiberna, aestivawinter-quarters, summer-quarters
castra ponere, locareto encamp
idoneo, aequo, suo (opp. iniquo) locoin a favourable position
castra metari (B. C. 3. 13)to mark out a camp
milites in hibernis collocare, in hiberna deducereto take the troops to their winter-quarters
castra munireto make a fortified, entrenched camp
castra munire vallo (aggere)to fortify the camp with a rampart
fossam ducereto make a ditch, a fosse
vallum iacere, exstruere, facereto raise a rampart, earthwork
castra praesidiis firmareto strengthen the camp by outposts
praesidio castris milites relinquereto leave troops to guard the camp
castra coniungere, iungere (B. C. 1. 63)to make a camp in common
castra nudare (B. G. 7. 70)to leave the camp undefended
cohors, quae in statione estthe cohort on guard-duty
vigilias agere in castris (Verr. 4. 43)to mount guard in the camp
custodias agere in valloto keep watch on the rampart
stationes agere pro portisto be on duty before the gates
circumvenire vigilias (Sall. Iug. 45. 2)to make the round of the sentries
tesseram dare (Liv. 28. 14)to give the watchword, countersign
copias castris continereto keep the troops in camp
se (quietum) tenere castristo remain inactive in camp
excursionem in hostium agros facereto make an inroad into hostile territory
praedatum ireto go in search of plunder, booty
ferre atque agere praedamto carry off booty
capere equosto capture horses
lignatum, aquatum ireto go to fetch wood, water
pabulatum, frumentatum ireto forage
pabulatione premi (B. C. 1. 78)to suffer from want of forage
omnia ferro ignique, ferro atque igni or ferro flammaque vastareto ravage with fire and sword
classicum or tuba canit ad praetoriumthe bugle, trumpet sounds before the general's tent
vasa conclamare (B. C. 3. 37)to give the signal for breaking up the camp, collecting baggage
vasa colligere (Liv. 21. 47)to pack the baggage (for marching)
signa convellere (vid. sect. XVI. 6, note signa...)to pluck up the standards out of the ground (to begin the march)
consilium habere, convocareto hold a council of war
rem ad consilium deferreto refer a matter to a council of war
oppidum natura loci munitum (B. G. 1. 38)a town with a strong natural position
oppidum manu (opere) munituma town artificially fortified
oppidum obsidereto besiege a city
oppidum obsidione claudereto besiege a city
oppidum in obsidione tenereto keep a town in a state of siege
oppidum fame domareto starve a town into surrender
oppidum oppugnareto storm a town
oppidum cingere vallo et fossato surround a town with a rampart and fosse
opera facereto raise siege-works
vineas agere (B. G. 3. 21)to advance pent-houses, mantlets
turres instituere, exstruereto raise towers
testudine facta moenia subire (B. G. 2. 6)to advance to the walls protected by a covering of shields
scalas admovere (B. C. 3. 63)to apply scaling-ladders
positis scalis muros ascendereto scale the walls by means of ladders
aries murum attingit, percutitthe battering-ram strikes the wall
iter ruina patefactuma breach
patentia ruinis (vid. XII. 1, note ruina...)a breach
cuniculos agere (B. G. 3. 21)to make mines, subterraneous passages
oppidum tormentis verberareto rain missiles on a town, bombard it
tela ingerere, conicereto discharge showers of missiles
murum nudare defensoribusto drive the defenders from the walls
eruptionem facere ex oppidoto make a sally, sortie from the town
crebras ex oppido excursiones facere (B. G. 2. 30)to make a sally, sortie from the town
ignem inferre operibus (B. C. 2. 14)to set fire to the siege-works
subsidium alicui summittereto send relief to some one
munitiones perrumpereto break through the lines (and relieve a town)
urbis obsidionem liberareto raise a siege (used of the army of relief)
oppidum obsidione liberareto raise a siege (used of the army of relief)
obsidionem quattuor menses sustinereto hold out for four months
oppugnationem, obsidionem relinquereto give up an assault, a siege
portas obstruere (B. G. 5. 50)to barricade the gates
portas refringereto break down the gates
claustra portarum revellereto break down the gates
in oppidum irrumpereto break into the town
in oppidum irruptionem facereto break into the town
oppidum capere, expugnareto take, storm a town
oppidum recipereto retake a town
oppidum incendereto fire a town
oppidum diripereto plunder a town
oppidum evertere, excīdereto completely destroy a town
oppidum solo aequareto raze a town to the ground
deditione facta (Sall. Iug. 26)after capitulation
arma tradereto surrender weapons
salutem petere a victoreto beg for mercy from the conqueror
se suaque omnia dedere victorito give up one's person and all one's possessions to the conqueror
se suaque omnia permittere victoris potestatito give up one's person and all one's possessions to the conqueror
se permittere in fidem atque in potestatem alicuius (B. G. 2. 3)to surrender oneself to the discretion of some one
in fidem recipere aliquem (Fam. 13. 16)to deal mercifully with some one
libera corpora sub corona (hasta) veneunt (B. G. 3. 16. 4)the free men are sold as slaves
cum uxoribus et liberiswith wife and child
aliquem (incolumem) conservareto grant a man his life
potestatem, copiam pugnandi hostibus facereto offer battle to the enemy
potestatem sui facere (alicui) (cf. sect. XII. 9, note audientia...)to accept battle
proelio (ad pugnam) hostes lacessere, provocareto provoke the enemy to battle
pugnam detrectare (Liv. 3. 60)to decline battle
supersedere proelioto refrain from fighting
hostem e manibus non dimittereto not let the enemy escape
locum ad pugnam idoneum deligereto choose suitable ground for an engagement
diem pugnae constituere (B. G. 3. 24)to fix a day for the engagement
signum proelii (committendi) exposcere (B. G. 7. 19)to demand loudly the signal to engage
signum proelii dareto give the signal to engage
vexillum proponere (Liv. 22. 3)to fix the ensign on the general's tent (as a signal to commence the engagement)
ad arma concurrereto rush to arms
exercitum educere or producere in aciemto lead the army to the fight
ad vim et arma descendere (vid. sect. V. 9, note Similarly...)to have recourse to force of arms
in certamen descendereto engage in the fight
in aciem descendere (Liv. 8. 8)to enter the field of battle
aciem (copias, exercitum) instruere or in acie constituereto draw up forces in battle-order
aciem triplicem instruere (B. G. 1. 24)to draw up the army in three lines
aciem explicare or dilatareto extend the line of battle, deploy the battalions
media aciesthe centre
subsidia collocareto station reserve troops
equites ad latera disponere (B. G. 6. 8)to place the cavalry on the wings
contionari apud milites (B. C. 1. 7)to harangue the soldiers
contionem habere apud militesto harangue the soldiers
ad virtutem excitare, cohortari (or simply adhortari, cohortari)to incite to valour
animos militum confirmare (B. G. 5. 49)to encourage, embolden the soldiery
proelium committere(1) to begin the battle, (2) to give battle
proelium inire (Liv. 2. 14)to engage
proelium facereto give battle
proelio equestri contendereto give battle with a cavalry-division
proelium equestre facereto give battle with a cavalry-division
proelium facere secundumto fight successfully
proeliis secundis utito fight successfully
rem (bene, male) gerere (vid. sect. XII. 2, note rem gerere...)to win, lose a fight (of the commander)
proelium intermittereto interrupt the battle
proelium dirimere (B. C. 1. 40)to break off the fight
proelium restituereto renew the battle with success
proelium renovare, redintegrareto begin the fight again
proelium deserereto give up the fight
proelio, armis decertare (B. G. 1. 50)to fight a decisive battle
acie (armis, ferro) decernereto fight a pitched battle
in acie dimicareto fight a pitched battle
proelio interesseto take part in the engagement
ex equo pugnareto fight on horseback
certamen singularesingle combat
povocare aliquem ad certamen singulareto challenge some one to single combat
proelium cruentum, atroxa bloody battle
proelium iustum (opp. tumultuarium)a pitched battle
classicum canit (B. C. 3. 82)the trumpet sounds for the attack
gradum inferre in hostemto march on the enemy
aggredi hostemto attack the enemy
invadere, impetum facere in hostemto attack the enemy
signa inferre in hostemto attack the enemy
impetum sustinere (B. G. 1. 26)to resist the attack, onset
impetum excipere (Liv. 6. 12)to parry the attack
in medios hostes se inicereto rush into the midst of the foe
per medios hostes (mediam hostium aciem) perrumpereto break through the enemy's centre
manum (us) conserere cum hosteto come to close quarters
signa conferre cum hosteto come to close quarters
proelio concurritur (Sall. Iug. 59)the lines charge in battle one on another
adversis hostibus occurrereto attack the enemy in the front
aversos hostes aggredito attack the enemy in the rear
hostes a tergo adoririto attack the enemy in the rear
iusto (opp. tumultuario) proelio confligere cum hoste (Liv. 35. 4)to fight a pitched, orderly battle with an enemy
acies inclīnat or inclīnatur (Liv. 7. 33)the line of battle gives way
proelium anceps estthe issue of the battle is undecided
ancipiti Marte pugnaturthe issue of the battle is undecided
diu anceps stetit pugnathe issue of the day was for a long time uncertain
res est in periculo, in summo discriminethe position is critical
res ad triarios redit (Liv. 8. 8)the triarii must now fight (proverbially = we are reduced to extremities)
collatis signis (viribus) pugnareto fight hand-to-hand, at close quarters
tum pes cum pede collatus est (Liv. 28. 2)a hand-to-hand engagement ensued
collato pede (Liv. 6. 12)hand to hand
gladio comminus (opp. eminus) rem gerereto fight with swords at close quarters
omissis pilis gladiis rem gerereto throw down the javelins (pila) and fight with the sword
res ad gladios vēnitswords must now decide the day
res gladiis geri coepta estswords must now decide the day
strictis gladiis in hostem ferrito throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword
res ad manus venitthe fighting is now at close quarters
laxatis (opp. confertis) ordinibus pugnareto fight in open order
ferarum ritu pugnareto fight like lions
manu fortispersonally brave
in latus hostium incurrereto fall upon the enemy's flank
circumvenire hostem aversum or a tergo (B. G. 2. 26)to surround the enemy from the rear
multitudine hostium cingito be surrounded by the superior force of the enemy
equitatu superiorem esseto have the advantage in cavalry
parem (opp. imparem) esse hostito be a match for the enemy
orbem facere (Sall. Iug. 97. 5)to form a square
in orbem consistereto form a square
cuneum facere (Liv. 22. 47)to draw up troops in a wedge-formation
phalangem facere (B. G. 1. 24)to form a phalanx
phalangem perfringereto break through the phalanx
subsidia summittereto send up reserves
integros defatigatis summittereto send fresh troops to take the place of those wearied with fighting
rari dispersique pugnare (B. C. 1. 44)to fight in skirmishing order
integri et recentes defatigatis succeduntfresh troops relieve the tired men
pellere hostemto repulse the enemy
acies hostium impelliturthe enemy's line is repulsed
loco movere, depellere, deicere hostem (B. G. 7. 51)to drive the enemy from his position
summovere or reicere hostium equitesto repel the attack of the enemy's cavalry
repellere, propulsare hostemto repulse an attack
undique premi, urgeri (B. G. 2. 26)to be pressed on all sides
prosternere, profligare hostemto rout the enemy
signa receptui canuntthe retreat is sounded
receptui canitur (B. G. 7. 47)the retreat is sounded
pedem referreto retire (without turning one's back on the enemy)
equitatus tutum receptum datthe cavalry covers the retreat
se recipere (B. G. 7. 20)to withdraw one's forces
loco excedereto abandon one's position
in fugam dare, conicere hostemto put the enemy to flight
fugare hostemto put the enemy to flight
fundere hostium copiasto rout the enemy's forces
caedere et fundere hostemto utterly rout the enemy
fundere et fugare hostemto utterly rout the enemy
prae se agere hostemto drive the enemy before one
fugam facere (Sall. Iug. 53)(1) to put to flight, (2) to take to flight
terga vertere or dareto flee, run away
terga dare hostito run away from the enemy
fugae se mandare (B. G. 2. 24)to take to flight
fugam capessere, capereto take to flight
se dare in fugam, fugaeto take to flight
se conicere, se conferre in fugamto take to flight
fuga salutem petereto seek safety in flight
fuga effusa, praeceps (Liv. 30. 5)headlong flight
pecorum modo fugere (Liv. 40. 27)to flee like deer, sheep
arma abicereto throw away one's arms
praecipitem se fugae mandareto flee headlong
ex (in) fuga dissipati or dispersi (B. G. 2. 24)soldiers routed and dispersed
hostes insequi, prosequito pursue the enemy
hostes (fusos) persequito follow up and harass the enemy when in flight
hostes assequi, consequito overtake the enemy
fugientibus instareto press the fugitives
tergis hostium inhaerereto be on the heels of the enemy
fugam hostium reprimere (B. G. 3. 14)to bring the flying enemy to a stand
excipere aliquem fugientemto cut off some one's flight
magna caedes hostium fugientium facta estthere was great slaughter of fugitives
capere aliquem vivumto take a person alive
effugere, elābi e manibus hostiumto escape from the hands of the enemy
dimittere e manibus hostesto let the enemy escape
eripere aliquem e manibus hostiumto rescue some one from the hands of the enemy
se fuga recipere (B. G. 1. 11)to save oneself by flight
proelio vinci, superari, inferiorem, victum discedereto be defeated in fight, lose the battle
cladem hostibus afferre, inferreto inflict a defeat on the enemy
cladem accipereto suffer a defeat
ingentem caedem edere (Liv. 5. 13)to cause great slaughter, carnage
stragem edere, facereto massacre
omnia strata sunt ferroall have perished by the sword
hostes, exercitum delere, concīdereto annihilate, cut up the enemy, an army
hostes ad internecionem caedere, delere (Liv. 9. 26)to absolutely annihilate the enemy
hostium copias occidione occīdere (Liv. 2. 51)to absolutely annihilate the enemy
vulnus infligere alicuito wound a person (also used metaphorically)
mortiferam plagam alicui infligereto inflict a mortal wound on some one
vulnus (grave, mortiferum) accipere, excipereto be (seriously, mortally) wounded
multis et illatis et acceptis vulneribus (B. G. 1. 50)after many had been wounded on both sides
vulneribus confectusweakened by wounds
vulnera (cicatrices) adversa (opp. aversa)wounds (scars) on the breast
vulnera adverso corpore acceptawounds (scars) on the breast
refricare vulnus, cicatricem obductamto open an old wound
ex vulnere mori (Fam. 10. 33)to die of wounds
magno cum detrimentowith great loss
nostri circiter centum cecideruntabout a hundred of our men fell
ad unum omnes perieruntthey perished to a man
exercitus victorthe victorious army
superiorem (opp. inferiorem), victorem (proelio, pugna) discedereto come off victorious
victoriam adipisci, parereto gain a victory, win a battle
victoriam ferre, referreto gain a victory, win a battle
proelio vincereto gain a victory, win a battle
victoriam reportare ab hosteto gain a victory over the enemy
victoriam praecipere (animo) (Liv. 10. 26)to consider oneself already victor
victoriam exploratam dimittereto let a sure victory slip through one's hands
sicut parta iam atque explorata victoriaas if the victory were already won
victoriam conclamare (B. G. 5. 37)to raise a shout of victory
victoriam or de victoria gratulari alicuito congratulate a person on his victory
victoria multo sanguine ac vulneribus stetit (Liv. 23. 30)the victory cost much blood and many wounds, was very dearly bought
triumphare de aliquo (ex bellis)to triumph over some one
triumphum agere de or ex aliquo or c. Gen. (victoriae, pugnae)to triumph over some one
per triumphum (in triumpho) aliquem ducereto lead some one in triumph
triumphum senatus Africano decernit (Fin. 4. 9. 22)the senate decrees to Africanus the honours of a triumph
indutias facere (Phil. 8. 7)to make a truce
indutias violareto break a truce
ius gentium violareto violate the law of nations
agere cum aliquo de paceto treat with some one about peace
pacem conciliare (Fam. 10. 27)to bring about a peace
pacem facere cum aliquoto make peace with some one
pacem dirimere, frangereto break the peace
his condicionibuson these terms
pacis condiciones ferre (not proponere)to propose terms of peace
pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui (Liv. 29. 12)to dictate the terms of peace to some one
pacis condiciones accipere, subire (opp. repudiare, respuere)to accept the terms of the peace
pax convenit in eam condicionem, ut...peace is concluded on condition that..
summa paxdeep peace
captivos permutare, commutareto exchange prisoners
captivos redimere (Off. 2. 18)to ransom prisoners
captivos sine pretio reddereto restore prisoners without ransom
obsides dareto give hostages
obsides civitatibus imperareto compel communities to provide hostages
pactionem facere cum aliquo (Sall. Iug. 40)to conclude a treaty with some one
ex pacto, ex foedereaccording to treaty
foedus facere (cum aliquo), icere, ferireto conclude a treaty, an alliance
foedus frangere, rumpere, violareto violate a treaty, terms of alliance
socium aliquem asciscere (B. G. 1. 5)to make some one one's ally
in amicitia populi Romani esse (Liv. 22. 37)to be on friendly terms with the Roman people
a senatu amicus appellatus est (B. G. 1. 3)he received from the senate the title of friend
terra potirito conquer a country
terram suae dicionis facereto reduce a country to subjection to oneself
populum in potestatem suam redigere (B. G. 2. 34)to reduce a country to subjection to oneself
populum in deditionem venire cogereto reduce a country to subjection to oneself
populum in deditionem accipereto accept the submission of a people
populum perdomare, subigereto subjugate a nation
populum, terram suo imperio, suae potestati subicere (not sibi by itself)to make oneself master of a people, country
se imperio alicuius subicere (not alicui)to make one's submission to some one
in deditionem venire (without alicui)to make one's submission to some one
in alicuius potestatem se permittereto make one's submission to some one
sub imperio et dicione alicuius esseto be subject to some one, under some one's dominion
subiectum esse, obnoxium esse imperio or dicioni alicuius (not simply alicui)to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion
in potestate, in dicione alicuius esseto be subject to some one, under some one's dominion
qui imperio subiecti suntsubjects
aliquem ad officium (cf. sect. X. 7, note officium...) reducere (Nep. Dat. 2. 3)to reduce a people to their former obedience
aliquem in officio continereto keep some one in subjection
in officio manere, permanereto remain in subjection
Asiam in provinciae formam (in provinciam) redigere (B. G. 1. 45)to make Asia into a Roman province
Asia populi Romani facta estAsia was made subject to Rome
gentem ad internecionem redigere or adducere (B. G. 2. 28)to completely annihilate a nation
navis actuariaa cutter
navis longaa man-of-war
navis onerariaa transport or cargo-boat
navis mercatoriaa merchantman
oppidum maritimuma seaport town
navibus plurimum posseto have a powerful navy
rebus maritimis multum valereto have a powerful navy
navem, classem aedificare, facere, efficere, instituereto build a ship, a fleet
navem (classem) armare, ornare, instruereto equip a boat, a fleet
navem deducere (vid. sect. XII. 1, note Notice too...)to launch a boat
navem subducere (in aridum)to haul up a boat
navem reficereto repair a boat
navem conscendere, ascendereto embark
exercitum in naves imponere (Liv. 22. 19)to embark an army
milites in terram, in terra exponereto disembark troops
classiarii (B. C. 3. 100)marines
nautae, remigessailors, rowers
vectores (Phil. 7. 9. 27)passengers
naves annotinaeships of last year
solvere (B. G. 4. 28)to weigh anchor, sail
navem (naves) solvereto weigh anchor, sail
ancoram (ancoras) tollereto weigh anchor, sail
naves ex portu solvuntthe ships sail from the harbour
malacia et tranquillitas (B. G. 3. 15)a dead calm
vela in altum dare (Liv. 25. 27)to put to sea
ventum (tempestatem) nancti idoneum ex portu exeuntthe ships sail out on a fair wind
vela facere, pandereto set the sails
vela dareto set the sails
vela contrahere (also metaph.)to furl the sails
oram legere (Liv. 21. 51)to hug the coast
superare insulam, promunturiumto double an island, cape
ventis reflantibus (Tusc. 1. 49)with the wind against one
cursum dirigere aliquoto set one's course for a place
cursum tenere (opp. commutare and deferri)to hold on one's course
cursum conficere (Att. 5. 12. 1)to finish one's voyage
gubernaculum tractareto steer
clavum tenereto steer
navem remis agere or propellereto row
remis contendereto row hard
navem remis concitare, incitareto row hard
sustinere, inhibere remos (De Or. 1. 33)to stop rowing; to easy
navem retro inhibere (Att. 13. 21)to back water
naufragium facereto be shipwrecked
navis ad scopulos alliditur (B. C. 3. 27)the ship strikes on the rocks
vento se dareto run before the wind
in litus eici (B. G. 5. 10)to be stranded
deferri, deici aliquoto be driven out of one's course; to drift
tempestate abripito be driven out of one's course; to drift
procella (tempestas) aliquem ex alto ad ignotas terras (oras) defertthe storm drives some one on an unknown coast
naufragium colligere (Sest. 6. 15)to collect the wreckage
appellere navem (ad terram, litus)to land (of people)
appelli (ad oram) (Att. 13. 21)to land (of ships)
ancoras iacereto drop anchor
ancoras tollereto weigh anchor
naves ad ancoras deligare (B. G. 4. 29)to make fast boats to anchors
naves (classem) constituere (in alto)to make fast boats to anchors
ad ancoram consistereto ride at anchor
ad ancoras deligarito ride at anchor
in ancoris esse, stare, consistereto ride at anchor
exire ex, de navito land, disembark
exire, egredi in terramto land, disembark
escensionem facere (of troops)to land, disembark
portu, terra prohiberi (B. C. 3. 15)to be unable to land
litora ac portus custodia clausos tenereto keep the coast and harbours in a state of blockade
deperireto founder, go down
aestu incitatoat high tide
navis praetoria (Liv. 21. 49)the admiral's ship; the flagship
pugnam navalem facereto fight a battle at sea
navem expedireto clear for action
navem rostro percutereto charge, ram a boat
navem expugnareto board and capture a boat
navem, classem deprimere, mergereto sink a ship, a fleet
classes concurrunt (Liv. 26. 39)the fleets charge
copulas, manus ferreas (in navem) inicereto throw grappling irons on board; to board
in navem (hostium) transcendereto throw grappling irons on board; to board
navem capere, intercipere, deprehendereto capture a boat
vela armamentaquesails and rigging
ex eo navium concursu magnum incommodum est acceptummuch damage was done by this collision
navigia speculatoriareconnoitring-vessels
ut ait Cicero (always in this order)as Cicero says
ut Ciceronis verbis utarto use Cicero's expression; to say with Cicero (not ut cum Cicerone loquar)
ut ita dicamso to speak (used to modify a figurative expression)
ut non (nihil) dicam de...not to mention..
ut plura non dicamto say nothing further on..
ne dicamnot to say... (used in avoiding a stronger expression)
ne (quid) gravius dicamto say the least..
ut breviter dicamto put it briefly
deniquein short; to be brief
ne multa, quid plura? sed quid opus est plura?in short; to be brief
ut paucis (rem) absolvamin short; to be brief
ut paucis (brevi, breviter) complectarin short; to be brief
ut brevi comprehendamin short; to be brief
ut brevi praecīdamin short; to be brief
ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciamto sum up..
ne longum sitnot to be prolix
ne longus, multus simnot to be prolix
ne diutius vos demorernot to be prolix
ne in re nota et pervulgata multus simnot to be diffuse on such a well-known subject
ut levissime dicam (opp. ut gravissimo verbo utar)to use the mildest expression
ut planius dicamto express myself more plainly
ut verius dicamto put it more exactly
ut semel or in perpetuum dicamto say once for all
ut in eodem simili verserto use the same simile, illustration
ut hoc utar or afferamto use this example
dicam quod sentioI will give you my true opinion
tantum or unum illud or hoc dicoI will only say this much..
non nego, non infitiorI do not deny
hoc dici potest de aliqua rethis can be said of..., applies to..
hoc cadit in aliquidthis can be said of..., applies to..
hoc transferri potest in aliquidthis can be said of..., applies to..
dixi quasi praeteriens or in transituI said en passant, by the way
sexcenties, millies dixiI have said it a thousand times
ut supra (opp. infra) diximus, dictum estas I said above
dici vix (non) potest or vix potest dici (vix like non always before potest)I cannot find words for..
incredibile dictu estit sounds incredible
supersedeo oratione (not dicere)I avoid mentioning...; I prefer not to touch upon..
omitto dicereI avoid mentioning...; I prefer not to touch upon..
haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicamthis I have to say
haec (fere) dixithe spoke (very much) as follows
hanc in sententiam dixitthe tenor of his speech was this..
mihi quaedam dicenda sunt de hac reI have a few words to say on this
quod vere praedicare possumwithout wishing to boast, yet..
quod non arroganter dixerimwhich I can say without offence, arrogance
pace tua dixerim or dicere liceatallow me to say
bona (cum) venia tua dixerimallow me to say
non est huius loci c. Inf.this is not the place to..
non est hic locus, ut...this is not the place to..
sed de hoc alias pluribusmore of this another time
atque or sed haec (quidem) hactenusso much for this subject...; enough has been said on..
atque haec quidem de...so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..
ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum estso much for this subject...; enough has been said on..
haec (quidem) illethis much he said
haec Ciceronis ferethis is very much what Cicero said
atque etiam hoc animadvertendum estthere is this also to notice
ad reliqua pergamus, progrediamurto pass on
hic (ille) locus obscurus estthis passage is obscure
hoc in medio relinquamuslet us leave that undecided
sed lābor longiusbut that takes us too far
non id ad vivum reseco (Lael. 5. 8)I do not take that too strictly
nonnulla praedīcamI wish to say a few words in preface
ut omittam c. Accus.putting aside, except
cum discessi, -eris, -eritis abputting aside, except
praeter c. Accus.putting aside, except
ut praetermittam c. Acc. c. Inf.to except the fact that..
praeterquam quod or nisi quodto except the fact that..
hoc in promptu estit is clear, evident
hoc in aperto estit is clear, evident
hoc est luce (sole ipso) clariusthis is as clear as daylight
hoc facile intellegi potestthat is self-evident, goes without saying
hoc per se intellegiturthat is self-evident, goes without saying
hoc sua sponte appāretthat is self-evident, goes without saying
ex quo intellegitur or intellegi potest, debetfrom this it appears, is apparent
ex quo perspicuum estfrom this it appears, is apparent
inde patet, appāretfrom this it appears, is apparent
apparet et exstatit is quite manifest
exstat atque eminetit is quite manifest
si quaeris, si verum quaerimusto put it exactly
id quod maximum, gravissimum estthe main point
quod caput estthe main point
quod maius estwhat is more important
testis est, testatur, declaratthis shows, proves..
documento, indicio est (without demonstr. pron. but cui rei documento, indicio est)this shows, proves..
sed hoc nihil (sane) ad rembut this is not to the point
aliquid (τι) dicis (opp. nihil dicis)there is something in what you say; you are more or less right
est istuc quidem aliquidthere is something in what you say; you are more or less right
audio, fateorI admit it, say on
ain tu?do you think so? are you in earnest?
nonne?is it not so?
quorsum haec (dicis)?what do you mean?
male (opp. bene) narras (de)I am sorry to hear..
monstra dicis, narrasit is incredible
clarius loquerespeak up, please
mihi crede (not crede mihi)believe me
per me licetI have no objection
rem acu tetigistiyou have hit the nail on the head
ita prorsus existimothat is exactly what I think
ita res estit is so
res ita (aliter) se habetthe matter stands so (otherwise)
nec mirum, minime mirum (id quidem), quid mirum?no wonder
neque id mirum est or videri debetthere is nothing strange in that
et recte (iure, merito)quite rightly
et recte (iure) quidemquite rightly
recte, iure id quidemquite rightly
neque immerito (iniuria)and rightly too
neque id immerito (iniuria)and rightly too
meo (tuo, suo) iurewith perfect right
iusto iurewith perfect right
iustissime, rectissimelegitimately; with the fullest right
optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).legitimately; with the fullest right
macte virtute (esto or te esse iubeo)good luck to you
sed manum de tabula!but enough!


 

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