(Είναι ακριβές αυτό με τα χιλιάρικα;)
Βιαστικά για να προλάβω (εξαγωγούλα από το κατεβασμένο .pdf), γιατί το σημείο που ενδιαφέρει χρειάζεται κωδικό πρόσβασης κ.λπ.:A Note on the Classes of Roman Officials in the Age of Diocletian
Angelo Segre Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 74. (1943), pp. 102-108.
Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0065-9711%281943%2974%3C102%3AANOTCO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V
Ducenarii and centenarii before the reform of Diocletian. In periods of severe inflation private people as well as the Administration often are compelled to use other measures of value than the in-flated currency.
It has already been shown how, after the Edict de pretiis rerum venalium of 301 had proved ineffective, the price of a modius castrensis of wheat was in some cases adopted as a unit of value.' Payments in gold and in silver were requested very often by the Byzantine Administration. In the period preceding the introduction of the solidus of 4 scruples by Constantine gold and silver were often paid in gold and silver pounds. After Constantine gold was paid more often in solidi. Gold and silver, however, were paid frequently in debased currency at the rate of exchange of the day.
In the early Byzantine age owing to the very low and very variable purchasing power of gold, lower cash wages prevailed and those of the employees of the Administration usually were paid partly in kind to make sure that the wage-earners had enough to live on. In large part, soldiers' wages were paid in annonae in accordance with a system quite different from that used in the first and second centuries after Christ. Payment of wages in annonae became so general in the Byzantine age that even the highest officers received their allowances partly in annonae, in kind, and
partly in annonae adaeratae, i.e. in money. This system of pay-ments was not new, of course. In the third century, before the age of Diocletian, high officers of the army received their allowances partly in money and partly in kind. These allowances, however, were not reckoned in annonae as happened later, probably in the beginning of the fourth century when the system of the payments in annonae had become general.[...]
The Administration reckoned in annonae in order to ensure the supply of food for the army in a period of very fierce inflation. This calculation in annonae was a natural consequence of the system of Diocletian, which introduced new units of reckoning in the Roman Empire, such as iuga, capita and ahnonae. This system of reckon- ing remained in the Byzantine Administration centuries after the stabilization of the Byzantine currency.
Before the general introduction of the system of annonae the salaries of civilian officials of the Roman Administration were reckoned in sestertii at the rate of 100 sestertii to an aureus. The aurei of the age of Caracalla and Severus Alexander usually weighed 1/50 gold pound5
, in the age of Diocletian 1/60 gold pound6
, after Constantine 1/72 gold pound7
.The Roman procuratores, who since the time of Hadrian and the Antonines were divided into four sharply defined classes, tricenarii, ducenarii, centenarii, sexagenarii, received 300,000, 200,000, 100,000, 60,000 sestertii a year, respectively
. The allowances in sestertii of the officials in the late third and early fourth century were reckoned in aurei but were paid probably largely in the debased currency of the time at the legal rate of the exchange of that currency with the aureus. In other words, the allowances of the procuratores were reckoned in an account unit, the gold nummi, which, as account units, became usual in the third century after Christ, even before the period of the great inflation. In my opinion in the years about 250 A.D. the aureus was still reckoned at 100 sestertii or 25 denarii. Eventually the aureus made an agio on the silver coins, but probably more on the provincial coins than on the Roman silver denarii.s No evidence remains of a rising rate of exchange of the aureus with the denarius in the age before the great inflation.
5. Metrologia 359 and 366; and cf. Louis C. West, Coin Standards 121-5.
6. Metrologia 433 and Byz 15 (1940141) 254f.
7. Metrologia 465ff.