Author Topic: Okay = Όλα Καλά; Μύθος ή πραγματικότητα;  (Read 4216 times)

Frederique

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Okay = Όλα Καλά;
@administrator and moderators, και προς τους φανατικούς του scrabble (όπως εμένα), και όχι μόνο...Προτείνω τη δημιουργία ενός child board με καθαρά ετυμολογικό περιεχόμενο όπου θα μπορούμε να παίζουμε με τις λέξεις, να κουβεντιάζουμε γι’ αυτές και να μαθαίνουμε την ιστορία τους.
«Η αγγλική έκφραση okay ή ΟΚ / Ο.Κ. (σπανίως οκέι) σημαίνει, κατά κανόνα, «εντάξει» και αποτελεί χαρακτηριστικό αμερικανισμό, που χρησιμοποιείται συνήθως για να δηλώσει αποδοχή ή συμφωνία. Πολλές φορές χρησιμοποιείται απλώς ως συνομιλιακό εκφώνημα ή για να δηλώσει ότι η ποιότητα ενός αντικειμένου είναι ικανοποιητική.
Χρησιμοποιείται πολύ συχνά στην αγγλική γλώσσα, αλλά έχει πλέον ενσωματωθεί σε διάφορες γλώσσες ως λεξικό δάνειο.»...

«Έχουν γίνει επίσης προσπάθειες να αποδοθεί ελληνική καταγωγή στο Ο.Κ. και να ετυμολογηθεί από τη φρ. όλα καλά.»

Τελικά σημαίνει «όλα καλά»; Έρχεται από τα Ελληνικά; Μύθος ή πραγματικότητα; Εσείς τι πιστεύετε;
Communicate. Explore potentials. Find solutions.


spiros

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Etymology

A wide variety of etymologies have been proposed for okay. None is unanimously agreed upon. However, most are generally agreed to be unlikely or anachronistic.

Allen Walker Read, revisiting and refuting his own work of 20 years earlier, contributed a major survey of the early history of okay in a series of six articles in the journal American Speech in 1963 and 1964. He tracked the spread and evolution of the word in American newspapers and other written documents, and later the rest of the world. He also documented controversy surrounding okay and the history of its folk etymologies, both of which are intertwined with the history of the word itself.

A key observation is that, at the time of its first appearance in print, a broader fad existed in America of "comical misspellings" and of forming and employing acronyms and initialisms. These were apparently based on direct phonetic representation of (some) people's colloquial speech patterns. Examples at the time included K.Y. for "know yuse" and N.S.M.J. for "'nough said 'moung gentlemen", "Bosting" for "Boston" and "Vell vot of it!".

    "The abbreviation fad began in Boston in the summer of 1838 ... OFM, "our first men," and used expressions like NG, "no go," GT, "gone to Texas," and SP, "small potatoes." Many of the abbreviated expressions were exaggerated misspellings, a stock in trade of the humorists of the day. One predecessor of OK was OW, "oll wright," and there was also KY, "know yuse," KG, "know go," and NS, "nuff said."

The general fad may have existed in spoken or informal written American English for a decade or more before its appearance in newspapers. OK's original presentation as "all correct" was later varied with spellings such as "Oll Korrect" or even "Ole Kurreck". Deliberate word play was associated with the acronym fad and was a yet broader contemporary American fad.

Improbable or refuted etymologies
These range from the colloquial to the fanciful to the enthusiastic to the faintly humorous. Some American literature refers to some of these as "folk etymologies".

—The same theory has also been applied to Gen. Custer's telegraphed reports of platoon casualties whereby OK "oh key" meant "0 (zero) key (killed)". It may therefore be an acronym for no killed in a platoon AKA P0K or "platoon fit to fight", a common telegraph message. However, this is also anachronistic, as Custer was born more than 8 months after OK appeared in the Boston Morning Post.
—In German newspapers and printing the term OK has been in use at least since the 1800s; it stood for "ohne Korrektur" (without correction).
—The German philologist Gottfried Hermann (1772-1848, fond of conjectural textual criticism) used to mark undisputed passages in Latin or Greek texts by writing "o.K." in the margin ("ohne Konjektur", no conjecture necessary = 'okay'), thereby grudgingly indicating to the type-setter that the verse or passage did not need emendation and an older printed version could be used (see E. Fraenkel, The Latin Studies of Hermann and Wilamowitz, JRS 38 , 28-34). This use has been established practice in German publishing houses at least since 1827 (G. Hermann, Opuscula I, Lipsiae 1827, 58 ff.). The last descendents of the Leipzig school of criticism still use this abbreviation (now mostly at Bonn and Cologne).
—According to William Courson, the English use of "OK" may derive from the Russian expression Ochen Korosho ("Very Well"). However, the initial letter in the second word of this common phrase is not the Russian letter "K", which is pronounced like its English equivalent, but "Kha", pronounced like the "ch" in "loch" or "chutzpah".In Russian it would have appeared as "O.X".
—Another story is that the expression came from a quality control system in some company, in which some inspector with the initials O.K. provided final approval. Some versions of this story include implausible employee names such as "Omar Kulemsky" or impossibly anachronistic choices for the company such as the Ford Motor Company, where a German immigrant named Otto Kaiser or Otto Krüger or Oskar Krause would inspect each car coming off the assembly line at a plant in Michigan and chalk his initials on the front windshield if it was "OK".
—In Greek, O.K. is a correctly-spelled abbreviation for the expression, Ola Kala (Ὅλα Καλά, ΟΚ), "everything is fine", which has the same meaning as the American English "okay". It is possible that Greek sailors used Ola Kala in American ports. It is also said that "O.K." was written on the ships or other places to show that the ships are ready.
—French fishermen, including those based in New Orleans, might sometimes have used the phrase "au quai", literally "to the quay", to mean that a fishing trip was successful (or went okay) and therefore there were fish to unload at the quay. This itself may have been derived from references to the Haitian seaport of Les Cayes (previously known as 'Aux Cayes'). "Aux quais" was also stencilled on Puerto Rican rum specially selected for export.
—Some people say that okay derives from a signoff from a German general during the Independence War, where "OK" would be short for "Oberst Kommandant"
—A global telegraph signal was (is) "OK": Open Key—ready to transmit.
—William Richardson recorded his journey from Boston to New Orleans in his 1815 diary. Transcriptions of the diary show "Arrived at Princeton, a handsome little village, o.k. and at Trenton where we dined at 1p.m." - although some have proposed that this showed the use of the expression in 1815, the original manuscript shows that this was actually part of some alterations that may have been added by Richardson (or someone else), possibly even after 1840 when the term had come into common use. Another possibility is that the writing is of a.h., referring to "a handsome", but there are many objections to this theory.
—The Finnish word for "correct" is "oikea".
—The Times, in 1939, pointed out that some bills going through the House of Lords had to be read and approved by Lords Onslow and Kilbracken, and they each initialed them—producing the combined initials OK.
—In a letter in the Vancouver Sun, in 1935, it was pointed out that early schoolmasters would mark examination papers by adding the Latin Omnis Korrecta, which was sometimes abbreviated to OK.
—Early ship-builders would mark the timber they prepared, and the first to be laid was marked "OK Number 1", meaning "outer keel No. 1".
—In early England, the last harvest loads brought in from the fields were known as hoacky or horkey. It was also the name given to harvest-home, which was the feast which followed the last loads brought in. The satisfactory completion of harvest was therefore known as hoacky, which was soon (at least according to an article in the Daily Telegraph in 1935) shortened to OK.
—Probably the earliest suggestion comes from the Greek. The two Greek letters omega and khi appear in a work called Geoponica in 920AD as being a magical incantation (when repeated twice) against fleas.
—During the Civil War, the US War Department bought supplies of crackers from a company called Orrins-Kendall. Their initials appeared on the boxes, and as the crackers were of a particularly high standard, the letters OK became synonymous with "all right". This theory was originally put forward in a publication called Linguist, from the Horace Mann School for Boys in New York, although it has subsequently appeared in a number of other publications.
—During the 1840 United States presidential election, President Martin Van Buren's re-election campaign's publicity used his old nickname: "Vote for O.K.", short for his nickname "Old Kinderhook" (see above). His opponents satirized this with a range of alternative and pointed etymologies: Out of Kash, Out of Kredit, and Out of Klothes all became identified with Van Buren's campaign. And on the floor of the House of Representatives, a congressman from Illinois suggested it meant Orful Kalamity.
—Several centuries before its first appearance, Norwegian and Danish sailors used an Anglo-Saxon word hogfor, which meant ready for sea. This was frequently shortened to HG, which in turn would have been pronounced hag-gay. A German (Pennsylvanian Dutch) accent, common in north-eastern America in the 19th century (and reflected in comical misspellings cited by Read such as "Vell, vot ov it!") would render this as as OK to an English-speaking listener.

More probable etymologies
here are three candidate etymologies which are widely regarded as the primary candidates for okay's derivation. The first has been extensively argued for by Read; the remaining two differ materially from other candidates in that they:

—have widespread verifiable pre-existing documented usage,
—have verifiable geographic overlaps with okay's first documented instances,
—have equivalent meanings,
—do not fit over-neatly into contemporaneous or subsequent political or cultural circumstances, and
—are remarkably similar in pronunciation to okay (having due regard to the danger of false coincidence, which is endemic to colloquial etymology)

They are:

   1. the acronym of the "comically misspelled" oll korrect
   2. the Choctaw word okeh
   3. the Wolof and Bantu word waw-kay or the Mande (aka "Mandinke" or "Mandingo") phrase o ke
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okay
« Last Edit: 20 Feb, 2011, 13:42:22 by spiros »

Frederique

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@spiros: Wow! This is what I call a reply ! :-)


wings

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Toν ψήνεις για να μας πει κι άλλα;

Frederique

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Ε, τι να κάνω. Μ' αρέσει όταν έχει καταπιεί γλιστρίδα και τον πιάνει λογοδιάρροια... μαθαίνουμε πολλά διαβάζοντας.
« Last Edit: 26 Jul, 2008, 14:48:59 by wings »