Κύριε, σῶσον τὸν δοῦλον σου κτλ. -> Lord, save your slave ... (mosaic inscription from 4th cent. church in the Negev)

Bbiblewalks

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Hi

   I need assistance in translation of 2 mosaic inscriptions in the churches of Mamshit (Negev, Israel):

http://biblewalks.com/Sites/MamshitChurches.html#WesternChurch

  Thanks in advance

Rotem
« Last Edit: 23 Mar, 2012, 20:37:33 by billberg23 »




mavrodon

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This is not the whole text. The last line seems blurred. Both mosaics have similar texts, asking God to save Neilos (the man who had built the church).
« Last Edit: 23 Mar, 2012, 20:29:47 by mavrodon »


billberg23

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We've transferred these to the correct board (Ancient Greek->English), and we'll now need to have separate posts for each.  I'll do the more difficult one (the first) here:
K[YΡΙ]Ε  Σ<Ω>ΣΟΝ ΤΟΝ ΔΟΥΛΟΝ ΣΟΥ ΝΙΛΟΝ ΦΙΛΟΧΡΙΣΤΟΝ ΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΑΝΤΑ ΤΑ ?Ο? ΤΕ ΚΑΙ Κ[ΥΡΙ]Ε  ΦΥΛ[  ] ΤΟΝ ΟΙΚΟΝ ΑΥΤΟ<Υ>

"Lord, save your slave Nilos, who loves Christ, who funded/built (this?), and, Lord, protect (?) his household."

Perhaps someone else out there can give a better reading of the latter half of this inscription.  


« Last Edit: 23 Mar, 2012, 20:38:28 by billberg23 »



mavrodon

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The words you omit are almost unreadable. Change "slave" to "servant". Δούλος, in this context, means "υπηρέτης"/"θεράπων".


billberg23

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wings

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billberg23

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Thomas, you're pulling my leg, using a google search statistic!  ((-:  Of course the translators have everyone convinced by now that it means "servant"!
Vicky, don't you mean "slave" rather than "servant"? 


mavrodon

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Nevertheless read the following commentaries from http://bible.cc/romans/1-1.htm:

 
Barnes' Notes on the Bible
A servant - This name was what the Lord Jesus himself directed His disciples to use, as their general appellation; Matthew 10:25; Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44. And it was the customary name which they assumed; Galatians 1:10; Colossians 4:12; 2 Peter 1:1; Jde 1:1; Acts 4:29; Titus 1:1; James 1:1. The proper meaning of this word servant, δοῦλος doulos, is slave, one who is not free. It expresses the condition of one who has a master, or who is at the control of another. It is often, however, applied to courtiers, or the officers that serve under a king: because in an eastern monarchy the relation of an absolute king to his courtiers corresponded nearly to that of a master and a slave. Thus, the word is expressive of dignity and honor; and the servants of a king denote officers of a high rank and station. It is applied to the prophets as those who were honored by God, or especially entrusted by him with office; Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:2; Jeremiah 25:4. The name is also given to the Messiah, Isaiah 42:1, "Behold my servant in whom my soul delighteth," etc.; Isaiah 53:11, "shall my righteous servant justify many." The apostle uses it here evidently to denote his acknowledging Jesus Christ as his master; as indicating his dignity, as especially appointed by him to his great work; and as showing that in this Epistle he intended to assume no authority of his own, but simply to declare the will of his master, and theirs.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ - The word δουλος, which we translate servant, properly means a slave, one who is the entire property of his master; and is used here by the apostle with great propriety. He felt he was not his own, and that his life and powers belonged to his heavenly owner, and that he had no right to dispose of or employ them but in the strictest subserviency to the will of his Lord. In this sense, and in this spirit, he is the willing slave of Jesus Christ; and this is, perhaps, the highest character which any soul of man can attain on this side eternity. "I am wholly the Lord's; and wholly devoted in the spirit of sacrificial obedience, to the constant, complete, and energetic performance of the Divine will." A friend of God is high; a son of God is higher; but the servant, or, in the above sense, the slave of God, is higher than all; - in a word, he is a person who feels he has no property in himself, and that God is all and in all.

  
New International Version (©1984)
Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle and set apart for the gospel of God--
New Living Translation (©2007)
This letter is from Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, chosen by God to be an apostle and sent out to preach his Good News.

English Standard Version (©2001)
Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

International Standard Version (©2008)
From: Paul, a servant of Jesus the Messiah, called to be an apostle and set apart for God's gospel,

Aramaic Bible in Plain English (©2010)
Paulus, a Servant of Yeshua The Messiah, a called one, and an Apostle, who was separated to The Gospel of God,

GOD'S WORD® Translation (©1995)
From Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle and appointed to spread the Good News of God.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

American King James Version
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God,

American Standard Version
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Douay-Rheims Bible
PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Darby Bible Translation
Paul, bondman of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, separated to God's glad tidings,

English Revised Version
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Webster's Bible Translation
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God,

Weymouth New Testament
Paul, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, called to be an Apostle, set apart to proclaim God's Good News,

World English Bible
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the Good News of God,

Young's Literal Translation
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, having been separated to the good news of God --
 
 
Barnes' Notes on the Bible
Paul - The original name of the author of this Epistle was "Saul." Acts 7:58; Acts 7:1; Acts 8:1, etc. This was changed to Paul (see the note at Acts 13:9), and by this name he is generally known in the New Testament. The reason why he assumed this name is not certainly known. It was, however, in accordance with the custom of the times; see the note at Acts 13:9. The name Saul was Hebrew; the name Paul was Roman. In addressing a letter to the Romans, he would naturally make use of the name to which they were accustomed, and which would excite no prejudice among them. The ancient custom was to begin an epistle with the name of the writer, as Cicero to Varro, etc. We record the name at the end. It may be remarked, however, that the placing the name of the writer at the beginning of an epistle was always done, and is still, when the letter was one of authority, or when it conferred any special privileges. Thus, in the proclamation of Cyrus Ezra 1:2, "Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia," etc.; see also Ezra 4:11; Ezra 7:12. "Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest," etc. Daniel 4:1. The commencement of a letter by an apostle to a Christian church in this manner was especially proper as indicating authority.

A servant - This name was what the Lord Jesus himself directed His disciples to use, as their general appellation; Matthew 10:25; Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44. And it was the customary name which they assumed; Galatians 1:10; Colossians 4:12; 2 Peter 1:1; Jde 1:1; Acts 4:29; Titus 1:1; James 1:1. The proper meaning of this word servant, δοῦλος doulos, is slave, one who is not free. It expresses the condition of one who has a master, or who is at the control of another. It is often, however, applied to courtiers, or the officers that serve under a king: because in an eastern monarchy the relation of an absolute king to his courtiers corresponded nearly to that of a master and a slave. Thus, the word is expressive of dignity and honor; and the servants of a king denote officers of a high rank and station. It is applied to the prophets as those who were honored by God, or especially entrusted by him with office; Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:2; Jeremiah 25:4. The name is also given to the Messiah, Isaiah 42:1, "Behold my servant in whom my soul delighteth," etc.; Isaiah 53:11, "shall my righteous servant justify many." The apostle uses it here evidently to denote his acknowledging Jesus Christ as his master; as indicating his dignity, as especially appointed by him to his great work; and as showing that in this Epistle he intended to assume no authority of his own, but simply to declare the will of his master, and theirs.

Called to be an apostle - This word called means here not merely to be invited, but has the sense of appointed. It indicates that he had not assumed the office himself, but that he was set apart to it by the authority of Christ himself. It was important for Paul to state this,

(1) Because the other apostles had been called or chosen to this work John 15:16, John 15:19; Matthew 10:1; Luke 6:13; and,

(2) Because Paul was not one of those originally appointed.

It was of consequence for him therefore, to affirm that he had not taken this high office to himself, but that he had been called to it by the authority of Jesus Christ. His appointment to this office he not infrequently takes occasion to vindicate; 1 Corinthians 9:1, etc.: Galatians 1:12-24; 2 Corinthians 12:12; 1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11; Romans 11:13.

An apostle - One sent to execute a commission. It is applied because the apostles were sent out by Jesus Christ to preach his gospel, and to establish his church; Matthew 10:2 note; Luke 6:13 note.

Separated - The word translated "separated unto," ἀφορίζω aphorizō, means to designate, to mark out by fixed limits, to bound as a field, etc. It denotes those who are "separated," or called out from the common mass; Acts 19:9; 2 Corinthians 6:17. The meaning here does not materially differ from the expression, "called to be an apostle," except that perhaps this includes the notion of the purpose or designation of God to this work. Thus, Paul uses the same word respecting himself; Galatians 1:15, "God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace," that is, God designated me; marked me out; or designed that I should be an apostle from my infancy. In the same way Jeremiah was designated to be a prophet; Jeremiah 1:5.

Unto the gospel of God - Designated or designed by God that I should make it "my business" to preach the gospel. Set apart to this, as the special, great work of my life; as having no other object for which I should live. For the meaning of the word "gospel," see the note at Matthew 1:1. It is called the gospel of God because it is his appointment; it has been originated by him, and has his authority. The function of an apostle was to preach the gospel Paul regarded himself as separated to this work. It was not to live in splendor, wealth, and ease, but to devote himself to this great business of proclaiming good news, that God was reconciled to people in his Son. This is the sole business of all ministers of "religion."


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ - The word δουλος, which we translate servant, properly means a slave, one who is the entire property of his master; and is used here by the apostle with great propriety. He felt he was not his own, and that his life and powers belonged to his heavenly owner, and that he had no right to dispose of or employ them but in the strictest subserviency to the will of his Lord. In this sense, and in this spirit, he is the willing slave of Jesus Christ; and this is, perhaps, the highest character which any soul of man can attain on this side eternity. "I am wholly the Lord's; and wholly devoted in the spirit of sacrificial obedience, to the constant, complete, and energetic performance of the Divine will." A friend of God is high; a son of God is higher; but the servant, or, in the above sense, the slave of God, is higher than all; - in a word, he is a person who feels he has no property in himself, and that God is all and in all.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ,.... The name of the author of this epistle is Paul, who formerly was called Saul. Some think his name was changed upon his own conversion; others, upon the conversion of the Roman deputy Sergius Paulus, Acts 13:7; others, that he was so called from the littleness of his stature; but rather it should seem that he had two names, which was usual with the Jews; one by which they went among the Gentiles, and another by they were called in their own land; See Gill on Acts 13:9. "A servant of Jesus Christ"; not a servant of sin, nor of Satan, nor of man, nor of Moses and his law, nor of the traditions of the elders, but of Jesus Christ; and not by creation only, but by redemption, and by powerful efficacious grace in conversion; which is no ways contrary to true liberty; nor a disgraceful, but a most honourable character; and which chiefly regards him as a minister of the Gospel:

A servant (δοῦλος)

Lit., bond-servant or slave. Paul applies the term to himself, Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:1; and frequently to express the relation of believers to Christ. The word involves the ideas of belonging to a master, and of service as a slave. The former is emphasized in Paul's use of the term, since Christian service, in his view, has no element of servility, but is the expression of love and of free choice. From this stand-point the idea of service coheres with those of freedom and of sonship. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:22; Galatians 4:7; Ephesians 6:6; Plm 1:16.

On the other hand, believers belong to Christ by purchase (1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18; Ephesians 1:7), and own Him as absolute Master. It is a question whether the word contains any reference to official position. In favor of this it may be said that when employed in connection with the names of individuals, it is always applied to those who have some special work as teachers or ministers, and that most of such instances occur in the opening salutations of the apostolic letters. The meaning, in any case, must not be limited to the official sense.

A servant (δοῦλος)

Lit., bond-servant or slave. Paul applies the term to himself, Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:1; and frequently to express the relation of believers to Christ. The word involves the ideas of belonging to a master, and of service as a slave. The former is emphasized in Paul's use of the term, since Christian service, in his view, has no element of servility, but is the expression of love and of free choice. From this stand-point the idea of service coheres with those of freedom and of sonship. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:22; Galatians 4:7; Ephesians 6:6; Plm 1:16.

On the other hand, believers belong to Christ by purchase (1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18; Ephesians 1:7), and own Him as absolute Master. It is a question whether the word contains any reference to official position. In favor of this it may be said that when employed in connection with the names of individuals, it is always applied to those who have some special work as teachers or ministers, and that most of such instances occur in the opening salutations of the apostolic letters. The meaning, in any case, must not be limited to the official sense.



 
 





wings

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mavrodon

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In a way I agree with you. If St Paul meant a not so powerful word he would use other words such as "θεράπων" or "υπηρέτης". On the other hand, I wonder if in English the word "slave" is exactly equivalent with the Greek word "δούλος". I remind you that St Paul, begins some of his letters stating that he is a prisoner of Jesus, a word more forceful than slave.
« Last Edit: 23 Mar, 2012, 23:50:43 by mavrodon »


billberg23

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Yes, Thomas, as I predicted, almost all the modern translators are now in the same pit.  But at least some of them (like Clarke) are honest enough to tell the truth (δοῦλος=slave) in their commentaries, though backing down to "servant" in their translations.


mavrodon

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In Greek we also use the word "σκλάβος" which surely is equivalent to slave. Anyway, a servant and a slave have a master, and, of course, here, slave is not used literarily but metaphorically, denoting mental bonds. Your obedient servant!


billberg23

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here, slave is not used literarily but metaphorically, denoting mental bonds
I don't know what sort of Christian Nilos was, but I know that Paul, the "prisoner of the Messiah King," considered his body as well as his mind to belong to the Master.  No metaphor there!  See also Slave of Christ: a New Testament metaphor for total devotion to Christ   by Murray J. Harris (InterVarsity Press 2001).
« Last Edit: 24 Mar, 2012, 22:25:59 by billberg23 »


 

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