Glossary of Exotic Terms by Kip. S. Thorne

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Glossary
                  definitions of exotic terms
from
black holes and time warps: EINSTEIN’S OUTRAGEOUS LEGACY
by Kip S. Thorne

(Part_1)

A
absolute. Independent of one’s reference frame; the same as measured in each and every reference frame.
absolute horizon.The surface of a black hole. See horizon.
absolute space. Newton’s conception of the three-dimensional space in which we live as having the notion of absolute rest, and as having the property that the lengths of objects are independent of the motion of the reference frame in which they are measured.
absolute time. Newton’s conception of time as being universal, with a unique, universally agreed upon notion of simultaneity of events and a unique, universally agreed upon time interval between any two events.
accelerated observer. An observer who does not fall freely.
accretion disk. A disk of gas that surrounds a black hole or neutron star. Friction in the disk makes the gas gradually spiral inward and accrete onto the hole or star.
adiabatic index. Same as resistance to compression.
aether. The hypothetical medium which (according to nineteenth-century thinking) oscillates when electromagnetic waves go by, and by its oscillations, makes the waves possible. The aether was believed to be at rest in absolute space.
angular momentum. A measure of the amount of rotation that a body has.
antimatter. A form of material that is "anathema" to ordinary matter. To each type of particle of ordinary matter (for example, an electron or proton or neutron) there corresponds an almost identical antiparticle of antimatter (the positron or antiproton or antineutron). When a particle of matter meets its corresponding antiparticle of antimatter, they annihilate each other.
apparent horizon.The outermost location around a black hole, where photons, trying to escape, get pulled inward by gravity. This is the same as the (absolutehorizon only when the hole is in a quiescent, unchanging state.
astronomer. A scientist who specializes in observing cosmic objects using telescopes.
astrophysicist. A physicist (usually a theoretical physicist) who specializes in using the laws of physics to try to understand how cosmic objects behave.
astrophysics. The branch of physics that deals with cosmic objects and the laws of physics that govern them.
atom. The basic building block of matter. Each atom consists of a nucleus with positive electric charge and a surrounding cloud of electrons with negative charge. Electric forces behind the electron cloud to the nucleus.
atomic bomb. A bomb whose explosive energy comes from a chain reaction of fissions of uranium-235 or plutonium-239 nuclei.


B
band. A range of frequencies.
bandwidth. The range of frequencies over which an instrument can detect a wave.
bar detector. A gravitational-wave detector in which the waves squeeze and stretch a large metal bar, and a sensor monitors the bar’s vibrations.
beam splitter. A device used to split a light beam into two parts going in different directions, and to combine two light beams that come from different directions.
big band. The explosion in which the Universe began.
big crunch. The final stage of recollapse of the Universe (assuming the Universe does ultimately recollapse; we don’t know whether it will not.)
binary star. Two objects in orbit around each other; the objects may be stars or black holes or a star and a black hole.
BKL singularity. A singularity near which tidal gravity oscillates chaotically both in time and space. This is the type of singularity that probably forms at the centers of black holes and in the big crunch of our Universe.
black hole. An object (created by the implosion of a star) down which things can fall but out of which nothing can ever escape.
black-hole binary. A binary system made of two black holes.
Blandorf-Znajek process. The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole by magnetic fields that thread though the hole.
boosted atomic bomb. An atomic bomb whose explosive power is increased by one or more layers of fusion fuel.


C
chain reaction. A sequence of fissions of atomic nuclei in which neutrons from one fission trigger additional fissions, and neutrons from those trigger still more fissions, and so on.
Chandrasekhar limit. The maximum mass that a white-dwarf star can have.
chronology protection conjecture. Hawking's conjecture that the laws of physics do not allow time machines.
classical. Subject to the laws of physics that govern macroscopic objects; non-quantum mechanical.
cold, dead matter. Cold matter in which all nuclear reactions have gone to completion, expelling from the matter all the nuclear energy that can possibly be removed.
collapsed star. The name used for a black hole in the West in the 1960s.
conservation law. Any law of physics that says some specific quantity can never change. Examples are conservation of mass and energy (taken together as a single entity via Einstein’s E=Mc2, conservation of total electric charge, and conservation of angular momentum (total amount of spin.)
corpuscle. The name used for a particle of light in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
cosmic censorship conjecture. The conjecture that the laws of physics prevent naked singularities from forming when an object implodes.
cosmic ray. A particle of matter or antimatter that bombards the Earth from space. Some cosmic rays are produced by the Sun, but most are created in distant regions of our Milky Way galaxy, perhaps in hot clouds of gas that are ejected into interstellar space by supernovae.
cosmic string. A hypothetical one-dimensional, strong-like object that is made from a warpage of space. The string has no ends (either it is closed on itself like a rubber band or it extends on and on forever), and its space warpage causes any circle around it to have circumference divided by diameter slightly less than π.
critical circumference. The circumference of the horizon of a black hole, the circumference inside which an object must shrink in order for it to form a black hole around itself. The value of the critical circumference is 18.5 kilometers times the mass of the hole or object in units of the mass of the Sun.
curvature of space or spacetime. The property of space or spacetime that makes it violate Euclid’s or Minkowski’s notions of geometry; that is, the property that enables straight lines that are initially parallel to cross.
Cyg A. Cygnus A: a radio galaxy that looks like (but it is not) two colliding galaxies. The first radio galaxy to be firmly identified.
Cyg X-1. Cygnus X-1: a massive object in our galaxy that is probable a black hole. Hot gas falling toward the object emits X-rays observed on Earth.

D
dark star. A phrase used in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to describe what we now call a black hole.
degeneracy pressure. Pressure inside a high-density matter, produced by erratic, high-speed, wave/particle-duality-induced motions of electrons or neutrons. This type of pressure remains strong when matter is cooled to absolute zero temperature.
deuterium nuclei, or deuterons. Atomic nuclei made from a single proton and a single neutron held together by the nuclear force. Also called “heavy hydrogen” because atoms of deuterium have almost the same chemical properties as hydrogen.
differential equation. An equation that combines in a single formula serious functions and their rates charge; that is, the functions and their “derivatives”. By “solve a differential equation” is meant “compute the functions themselves from differential equation”.
Doppler shift. The shift of a wave to a higher frequency (shorter wavelength, higher energy) when its source is moving toward a receiver, and to a lower frequency (longer wavelength, lower energy) when its source is moving away from the receiver.

E
electric charge. The property of a particle or matter by which it produces and feels electric forces.
electric field. The force field around an electric charge, which pulls and pushes on other electric charges.
electric field lines. Lines that point in the direction of the force that an electric field exerts on charged particles. Electric analogue of magnetic field lines.
electromagnetic waves. Waves of electric and magnetic forces. These include, depending on the wavelength, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays.
electron. A fundamental particles of matter with negative electric charge, which populates the outer regions of atoms.
electron degeneracy. The behavior of electrons at high densities, in which they move erratically with high speeds as a result of quantum mechanical wave/particle duality.
elementary particle. A subatomic particle of matter or antimatter. Among the elementary particles are electrons, protons, neutrons, positrons, antiprotons, and antineutrinos.
embedding diagram. A diagram in which one visualizes the curvature of a two-dimensional surface by embedding it in a flat, three-dimensional space.
entropy. A measure of the amount of randomness in large collections of atoms, molecules, and other particles; equal to the logarithm of the number of ways that the particles could be distributed without changing their macroscopic appearance.
equation of state. The manner in which the pressure of matter (or matter’s resistance to compression) depends on its density.
equivalence principle. See principle of equivalence.
error box. The region of the sky in which observations suggest that a specific star or other object is located. It is called an error box because the larger are the uncertainties (errors) of the observations, the larger will be this region.
escape velocity. The speed with which an object must be launched from the surface of a gravitating body in order for it to escape the body's gravitational pull.
event. A point in spacetime, that is, a location in space at a specific moment of time. Alternatively, something that happens at a point in spacetime, for example, the explosion of a firecracker.

F
field. Something that is distributed continuously and smoothly in space. Examples are the electric field, the magnetic field, the curvature of spacetime, and a gravitational wave.
fission, nuclear. The breakup of a large atomic nucleus to form several smaller ones. The fission of uranium or plutonium nuclei is the source of energy that drives the explosion of an atomic bomb, and fission is the energy source in nuclear reactors.
freely falling object. An object on which no forces act except gravity.
free particle. A particle on which no forces act; that is, a particle that moves solely under then influence of its own inertia. When gravity is present: A particle on which no forces act except gravity.
frequency. The rate at which a wave oscillates, that is, its number of cycles of oscillation per second.
frozen star. The name used for a black hole in the U.S.S.R. in the 1960s.
function. A mathematical expression that tells how one quantity, for example, the circumference of a black hole’s horizon, depends on some other quantity, for example, the black hole’s mass; in this example, the function is C=4πGM/c2, where C  is the circumference, M  is the mass, G  is Newton’s gravitation constant, and c  is the speed of light.
fusion, nuclear. The merger of two small atomic nuclei to form a larger one. The Sun is kept hot and hydrogen bombs are driven by the fusion of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium nuclei to form helium nuclei.

G
galaxy. A collection of between 1 billion and 1 trillion stars that all orbit around a common center. Galaxies are typically about 100,000 light-years in diameter.
gamma rays. Electromagnetic waves with extremely short wavelengths.
Geiger counter. A simple instrument for detecting X-rays; also called a “proportional counter”.
general relativity. Einstein’s laws of physics in which gravity is described by a curvature of spacetime.
geodesic. A straight line in a curved space or curved spacetime. On the Earth’s surface the geodesics are the great circles.
gigantic black hole. A black hole that weights as much as a million Suns, or more. Such holes are thought to inhabit the cores of galaxies and quasars.
global methods. Mathematical techniques, based on a combination of topology and geometry, for analyzing the structure of spacetime.
gravitational cutoff. Oppenheimer’s phrase for the formation of a black hole around an imploding star.
gravitational lens. The lengthening of the wavelength of light (the reddening of its color) as it propagates upward through a gravitational field.
gravitational redshift of light. The lengthening of the wavelength of light (the reddening of its color) as it propagates upwards through a gravitational field.
gravitational time dilation. The slowing of the flow of time near a gravitating body.
gravitational wave. A ripple of spacetime curvature that travels with the speed of light.
graviton. The particle, which according to wave/particle duality, is associated with gravitational waves.
gyroscope. A rapidly spinning object which holds its spin axis steadily fixed for a very long time.

H
“hair”. Any property that a black hole can radiate away and thus cannot hold on to; for example, a magnetic field or a mountain on its horizon.
hoop conjecture. The conjecture that a black hole forms when and only when a body gets compressed so small that a hoop with the critical circumference can be placed around it and twisted in all directions.
horizon. The surface of a black hole; the point of no return, Out of which nothing can emerge. Also called the absolute horizon  to distinguish it form the apparent horizon.
hydrogen bomb. A bomb whose explosive energy comes from the fusion of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium nuclei to form helium nuclei. See also superbomb.
hyperspace. A fictitious flat space in which one imagines pieces of our Universe’s curved space as embedded.

I
implosion. The high speed shrinkage of a star produced by the pull of its own gravity.
inertia. A body's resistance to being accelerated by forces that act on it.
inertial reference frame. A reference frame that does not rotate on which no external forces push or pull. The motion of such a reference frame is driven solely by its own inertia. See also local inertial reference frame.
infrared radiation. Electromagnetic waves with wavelength a little longer than light.
interference. The manner in which two waves, superimposing on each other and adding linearly, reinforce each other when their crests match with crests and troughs with troughs (constructive interference), and cancel each other when crests match up with troughs (destructive interference).
interferometer. A device based on the interference of waves. See radio interferometer  and interferometric detector.
interferometric detector. A detector of gravitational waves in which the waves’ tidal forces wiggle masses that hang from wires, and the interference of laser beams is used to monitor the masses’ motions. Also called interferometer.
interferometry. The process of interfering two or more waves with each other.
intergalactic space. The space between the galaxies.
interstellar space. The space between the stars of our Milky Way galaxy.
inverse square law of gravity. Newton’s law of gravity, which says that between every pair of objects in the Universe there acts a gravitational force that pulls the objects toward each other, and the force is proportional to the product of the object’s masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
ion. An atom that has lost some of its orbital electrons and therefore has a net positive charge.
ionized gas. Gas which has a large fraction of the atoms have lost orbital electrons.

J
jet. A beam of gas that carries power from the central engine of a radio galaxy or quasar to a distant, radio-emitting lobe.

L
laws of physics. Fundamental principles from which one can deduce, by logical and mathematical calculations, how our Universe behaves.
length contraction. The contraction of an object’s length as a result of its motion past the person who measures the length. The contraction occurs only along the direction of motion.
light. The type of electromagnetic waves that can be seen by the human eye.
light deflection. The deflection of the direction of propagation of light and other electromagnetic waves, as they pass near the Sun or any other gravitating body. This deflection is produced by the curvature of spacetime around the body.
LIGO. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.
linear. The property of combining together by simple addition.
lobe. A huge radio-emitting cloud of gas outside a galaxy or quasar.
local inertial reference frame. A reference frame on which no forces except gravity act, that falls freely in response to gravity's pull, and that is small enough for tidal gravitational accelerations to be negligible inside it.

M

magnetic field. Lines that point along the direction of a magnetic field (that is along the direction that a compass needle would point if it were placed in the magnetic field). These field lines can be made evident around a bar magnet by placing a sheet of paper above the magnet and scattering bits of iron on the paper.
mass. A measure of the amount of matter in an object. (The object's inertia is proportional to its mass, and Einstein showed that mass is actually a very compact form of energy. The word "mass" is also used to mean "an object made of mass", in contexts were the inertia of the object is important.
Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism. The set of laws of physics by which James Clerk Maxwell unified all electromagnetic phenomena. From these laws one can predict, by mathematical calculations, the behaviors of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic waves.
metaprinciple. A principle that all physical laws should obey. The principle of relativity is an example of metaprinciple.
microsecond. One-millionth of a second.
microwaves. Electromagnetic radiation with wavelength a little shorter than radio waves.
Milky Way. The galaxy in which we live.
mixmaster singularity. A singularity near which tidal gravity oscillates chaotically with time, but does not necessarily vary in space. See also BKL singularity.
molecule. An entity made of several atoms that share their electron clouds with each other. Water is a molecule made in this way from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen.
mouth. An entrance to a wormhole. There is a mouth at each of the two ends of the wormhole.

N
naked singularity. A singularity that is not inside a black hole (not surrounded by a black-hole horizon), and that therefore can be seen and studied by someone outside it. See cosmic censorship conjecture.
National Science Foundation (NSF). The agency of the United States government charged with the support of basic scientific research.
natural philosopher. A phrase widely used in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries to describe what we now call a scientist.
nebula. A cloud of brightly shining gas in interstellar space. Before the 1930s, galaxies were generally mistaken for nebulas.
neutrino. A very light particle that resembles the photon, except that it interacts hardly at all with matter. Neutrinos produced in the Sun’s center, for example, fly out through the Sun’s surrounding matter without being absorbed or scattered hardly at all.
neutron. A subatomic particle. Neutrons and protons, held together by the nuclear force, make up the nuclei of atoms.
neutron core. Oppenheimer’s name for a neutron star. Also a neutron star at the center of a normal star.
neutron star. A star, about as massive as the Sun but only 50 to 100 kilometers in circumference, and made from neutrons packed tightly together by the force of gravity.
new quantum mechanics. The final version of the laws of quantum mechanics, formulated in 1926.
Newtonian laws of physics. The laws of physics, built on Newton’s conception of space and time as absolute, which were the centerpiece of nineteenth-century thinking about the Universe.
Newton’s law of gravity. See inverse space law of gravity.
no-hair conjecture. The conjecture in the 1960s and the 1970s (which was proved to be true in the 1970s and 1980s) that all the properties of a black hole are determined uniquely by its mass, electric charge, and spin.
nonlinear. The property of combining together in a more complicated way than any simple addition.
nova. A brilliant outburst of light from an older star, now known to be caused by a nuclear explosion in the star’s outer layers.
nuclear burning. Nuclear fusion reactions that keep stars hot and power hydrogen bombs.
nuclear force. Also called the “strong interaction”. The force between protons and protons, protons and neutrons, and neutrons and neutrons, which holds atomic nuclei together. When particles are somewhat far from each other, the nuclear force is attractive, when they are closer it becomes repulsive. The nuclear force is responsible for much of the pressure near the center of a neutron star.
nuclear reaction. The merging of several atomic nuclei to form a larger one (fusion), or the breakup of a larger one to form several smaller ones (fission).
nuclear reactor. A device in which a chain reaction of nuclear fissions is used to generate energy, produce plutonium, and in some cases produce electricity.
nucleon. Neutron or proton.
nucleus, atomic. The dense core of an atom. Atomic nuclei have positive electric charge, are made of neutrons and protons, and are held together by the nuclear force.

O

observer. A (usually hypothetical) person or being who makes a measurement.
old quantum mechanics. The early version of the laws of quantum mechanics, developed in the first two decades of the twentieth century.
optical astronomer. An astronomer who observes the Universe using visible light (light that cannot be seen by the human eye).
orbital period. The time it takes for one object, in orbit around another, to encircle its companion once.

P
paradigm. A set of tools that a community of scientists uses in its research on a given topic, and in communicating the results of its research to others.
particle. A tiny object; one of the building blocks of matter (such as an electron, proton, photon, or graviton).
perihelion. The location, on a planet’s orbit around the Sun, at which it is closest to the Sun.
perihelion shift of Mercury. The tiny failure of Mercury’s elliptical orbit to close on itself, which results in its perihelion shifting in position each time Mercury passes through the perihelion.
perturbation. A small distortion (from its normal shape) of an object or of the spacetime curvature around an object.
perturbation methods. Methods of analyzing, mathematically, the behaviors of small perturbations of an object, for example a black hole.
photon. A particle of light or of any other type of electromagnetic radiation (radio, microwave, infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma ray); the particle which, according to wave/particle duality, is associated with electromagnetic wave.
piezoelectric crystal. A crystal that produces a voltage when squeezed or stretched.
Planck’s constant. A fundamental constant, denoted h that enters into the laws of quantum mechanics; the ratio of the energy of a photon to its angular frequency (that is, to 2π times its frequency).; 1.055 X 10-27 erg-second.
plasma. Hot, ionized, electrically conducting gas.
plutonium-239. A specific type of plutonium atomic nucleus which contains 239 protons and neutrons (94 protons and 145 neutrons).
polarization. The property that electromagnetic and gravitational waves have of consisting of two components, one that oscillates in one direction or set of directions, and the other in different direction or set of directions. The two components are called the waves' two polarizations.
polarized body. A body with negative electric charge concentrated in one region and positive charge concentrated in another region.
polarized light; polarized gravitational waves. Light or gravitational waves in which one of the two polarizations is completely absent (vanishes).
postdoc. Postdoctoral fellow; a person who has recently received the Ph.D. degree and is continuing his or her training in how to do research, usually under the guidance of a more senior researcher.
pressure. The amount of outward force that matter produces when it is squeezed.
Price’s theorem. The theorem that all properties of a black hole that can be converted into radiation will be converted into radiation and will be radiated away completely, thereby making the hole “hairless”.
primordial black hole. A black hole typically far less massive than the Sun that was created in the big bang.
principle of absoluteness of the speed of light. Einstein’s principle that the speed of light is a universal constant, the same in all directions and the same in every inertial reference frame, independent of the frame’s motion.
principle of equivalence. The principle that in a local inertial reference frame in the presence of gravity, all the laws of physics should take the same form as they do in an inertial reference frame in the absence of gravity.
principle of relativity. Einstein’s principle that the laws of physics should not be able to distinguish one inertial reference frame from another; that is, that they should take on the same form in every inertial reference frame. When gravity is present: this same principle, but with local inertial reference frames playing the role of the inertial reference frames.
pulsar. A magnetized, spinning neutron star that emits a beam of radiation (radio waves and sometimes also light and X-rays). As the star spins, its beam sweeps around like the beam of a turning spotlight; each time the beam sweeps past the Earth, astronomers receive a pulsar of radiation.
pulsation. The vibration or oscillation of an object, for example, a black hole or a star or bell.

« Last Edit: 26 May, 2006, 09:40:21 by epetelos »


elena petelos

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Μέρος 1

A
absolute. απόλυτος

absolute horizon. απόλυτος ορίζοντας

absolute space. απόλυτος χώρος

absolute time. απόλυτος χρόνος

accretion disk. δίσκος προσαύξησης

antimatter. αντιύλη

apparent horizon. φαινόμενος ορίζοντας

atom. άτομο

atomic bomb. ατομική βόμβα


B

bandwidth. εύρος συχνοτήτων

bar detector. ραβδόμορφος ανιχνευτής

Βig Βand. Μεγάλη Έκρηξη

Βig Crunch. Μεγάλη Σύνθλιψη

binary star. διπλός αστέρας

BKL singularity. ανωμαλία ΒΚL

black hole. μαύρη τρύπα

black-hole binary. διπλή μαύρη τρύπα

Blandorf-Znajek process. διεργασία Blandorf-Znajek



C
chain reaction. αλυσιδωτή αντίδραση

Chandrasekhar limit. όριο Chandrasekhar

chronology protection conjecture. υπόθεση διαφύλαξης της χρονολογικής τάξεως

classical. κλασικός

cold, dead matter. ψυχρή, νεκρή ύλη

collapsed star. αστέρας που έχει υποστεί κατάρρευση

cosmic censorship conjecture. υπόθεση διαφύλαξης της χρονολογικής τάξεως

cosmic ray(s). κοσμικές ακτίνες

cosmic string. κοσμική χορδή

critical circumference. κρίσιμη περίμετρος

curvature of space or spacetime. καμπύλωση του χρόνου ή του χωρόχρονου

Cyg A. Κύκνος Α

Cyg X-1. Κύκνος Χ-1


D

dark star. σκοτεινό άστρο

degeneracy pressure. πίεση εκφυλισμού

deuterium nuclei, or deuterons. πυρήνες δευτερίου ή δευτερόνια

differential equation. διαφορική εξίσωση

Doppler shift. μετατόπιση Doppler


E
electric charge. ηλεκτρικό φορτίο

electric field. ηλεκτρικό πεδίο

electric field lines. ηλεκτρικές δυναμικές γραμμές

electromagnetic waves. ηλεκτρομαγνητικά κύματα

electron. ηλεκτρόνιο

electron degeneracy. εκφυλισμός ηλεκτρονίων

elementary particle. στοιχειώδες σωματίδιο

embedding diagram. διάγραμμα εμβάπτισης

entropy. εντροπία

equation of state. καταστατική εξίσωση

equivalence principle. αρχή της ισοδυναμίας

error box. πλαίσιο αβεβαιότητας

escape velocity. ταχύτητα διαφυγής


F
field. πεδίο

fission, nuclear. σχάση, πυρηνική

frozen star. παγωμένος αστέρας

fusion, nuclear. σύντηξη, πυρηνική


G

galaxy. γαλαξίας

gamma rays. ακτίνες γ

Geiger counter. απαριθμητής Geiger

general relativity. γενική σχετικότητα

geodesic. γεωδαισιακή

gigantic black hole. γιγανταιία μαύρη τρύπα

gravitational lens. βαρυτικός φακός

gravitational redshift of light. βαρυτική μετατόπιση προς το ερυθρό

gravitational time dilation. βαρυτική διαστολή του χρόνου

gravitational wave. βαρυτικό κύμα

graviton. βαρυτόνιο

gyroscope. γυροσκόπιο

H

hoop conjecture. εικασία της στεφάνης

horizon. ορίζοντας

hydrogen bomb. βόμβα υδρογόνου

hyperspace. υπερχώρος


I
implosion. κατάρρευση

inertia. αδράνεια

inertial reference frame. αδρανειακό σύστημα αναφοράς

infrared radiation. υπέρυθρη ακτινοβολία

interference. συμβολή

interferometer. συμβολόμετρο

interferometric detector. συμβολομετρικός ανιχνευτής

interferometry. συμβολομετρία

intergalactic space. μεσογαλαξιακός χώρος

interstellar space. μεσοαστρικός χώρος

ion. ιόν

J

jet. πίδακας εκροής


L

length contraction. συστολή μήκους

light. ορατό φως

light deflection. εκτροπή του φωτός

LIGO. LIGO: Ανιχνευτής βαρυτικών κυμάτων συμβολομετρίας λέιζερ

lobe. λοβός

local inertial reference frame. τοπικό αδρανειακό σύστημα αναφοράς


M

magnetic field. μαγνητικό πεδίο

mass. μάζα

Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism. νόμοι ηλεκτρομαγνητισμού του Maxwell

microwaves. μικροκύματα

Milky Way. γαλαξίας (Milky way)

mixmaster singularity.ανωμαλία αναμίκτη


N
naked singularity. γυμνή ανωμαλία

National Science Foundation (NSF). Εθνικό Ίδρυμα Επιστημών των ΗΠΑ
neutrino. νετρίνο

neutron. νετρόνιο

neutron core. πυρήνας νετρονίων (αστρικός)

neutron star. αστέρας νετρονίων

Newtonian laws of physics. νευτώνειοι νόμοι

Newton’s law of gravity. νόμος της παγκόσμιας έλξης

no-hair conjecture. θεώρημα εξάλειψης ιχνών

nova. καινοφανής

nuclear burning. αντιδράσεις πυρηνικής σύντηξης

nuclear force. πυρηνική δύναμη

nuclear reaction. πυρηνική αντίδραση

nuclear reactor πυρηνικός αντιδραστήρας

nucleon. νουκλεόνιο


O


optical astronomer. οπτικός αστρονόμος

orbital period. τροχιακή περίοδος


P
paradigm. παράδειγμα

particle. σωματίδιο

perihelion. περιήλιο

perihelion shift of Mercury. μετάθεση του περιηλίου του Ερμή

perturbation. διαταραχή

photon. φωτόνιο

piezoelectric crystal. πιεζοηλεκτρικός κρύσταλλος

Planck’s constant. σταθερά του Planck

plasma. πλάσμα

plutonium-239. πλουτώνιο-239

polarization. πόλωση

polarized light; polarized gravitational waves. πολωμένο φως, πολωμένα βαρυτικά κύματα

Price’s theorem. θεώρημα του Price

primordial black hole. αρχέγονη μαύρη τρύπα

principle of absoluteness of the speed of light. αρχή της παγκοσμιότητας της ταχύτητας του φωτός

principle of equivalence. αρχή της ισοδυναμίας

principle of relativity. αρχή της σχετικότητας

pulsar. πάλσαρ

pulsation.ανάπαλση


Οι περισσότεροι από τους παραπάνω όρους υπάρχουν στην ελληνική έκδοση, αλλά μια και πολλά κείμενα έχουν πάρει.... ηλεκτρονική μορφή, θα εμπλουτιστεί. Αν δοθεί άδεια από τις εκδόσεις Κάτοπτρο θα μπουν και οι ορισμοί που υπάρχουν(en grec :-)) για τις παραπάνω έννοιες:

Μαύρες τρύπες και στρεβλώσεις του χρόνου
2ος τόμος
Μετάφραση και Επιστημονική επιμέλεια του τόμου 2:

Αποστολάτος Χάρης, δρ. φυσικής
Μάμαλης Αλέκος, φυσικός
Πιεράττος Θεόδωρος, φυσικός
Τσαγκογέωργα Αθηνά, φυσικός

(Many thanks to Dr Apostolatos for locating the 2nd volume for me, and for his words about Kip S. Thorne and his work).
« Last Edit: 19 Jun, 2006, 04:36:59 by elena petelos »



dinomachi

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Glossary

N

National Science Foundation (NSF). The agency of the United States government charged with the support of basic scientific research.



Χάρηκα κι εγώ, όταν βρήκα στην αναζήτηση στο Τρανσλάτουμ αυτό που ψάχνω τόση ώρα!
Τελικά, δεν έχει αποδοθεί στα ελληνικά αυτή η αμερικανική υπηρεσία;
Ν'αυτοσχεδιάσω;



elena petelos

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¨-)

Eθνικό Ίδρυμα Επιστημών.

Δεν έχει τελειώσει το γλωσσάρι.
:-)
(Eννοείται ότι ρίχνεις ένα ΗΠΑ -ή -και- το αγγλικό κατά προτίμηση).

http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&rls=GEUA%2CGEUA%3A2005-51%2CGEUA%3Aen&q=%CE%95%CE%B8%CE%BD%CE%B9%CE%BA%CF%8C+%CE%8A%CE%B4%CF%81%CF%85%CE%BC%CE%B1+%CE%95%CF%80%CE%B9%CF%83%CF%84%CE%B7%CE%BC%CF%8E%CE%BD+NSF&meta=



dinomachi

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Ευχαριστώωωω!
Δεν ξέρεις πόση ώρα το ψάχνω, το άτιμο!
Γιατί δε μου το'βγαλε, όμως, στην αναζήτηση στις σελίδες από Ελλάδα, όταν έβαλα το NSF, άραγε;
Μυστήριαι αι βουλαί του θείου Γκούγκλη...

:-))))


elena petelos

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Ευχαριστώωωω!
Δεν ξέρεις πόση ώρα το ψάχνω, το άτιμο!
Γιατί δε μου το'βγαλε, όμως, στην αναζήτηση στις σελίδες από Ελλάδα, όταν έβαλα το NSF, άραγε;
Μυστήριαι αι βουλαί του θείου Γκούγκλη...

:-))))
Πολλά δεν βγάζει στην αναζήτηση από google.gr . Προτείνω να αλλάξεις σε:
www.google.co.uk και αναζήτηση σε όλες τις σελιδούλες ανεξαρτήτως προελεύσεως.
;-)
φφφ


dinomachi

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Το έχω διαπιστώσει, αλλά δεν περίμενα τέτοια διαφορά στις παρεχόμενες υπηρεσίες...
Τεσπα!

Έβαλα το σύνδεσμο στους σελιδοδείκτες.
Ευχαριστώωω!

:-)))


zephyrous

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Τελικά, πίσω από κάθε πετυχημένο... γλωσσάρι, κρύβεται μια... Petelos. :)


elena petelos

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Το έχω διαπιστώσει, αλλά δεν περίμενα τέτοια διαφορά στις παρεχόμενες υπηρεσίες...
Τεσπα!

Έβαλα το σύνδεσμο στους σελιδοδείκτες.
Ευχαριστώωω!

:-)))
Pleasure! :-)))

Τελικά, πίσω από κάθε πετυχημένο... γλωσσάρι, κρύβεται μια... Petelos. :)
Χιούμορ κάνουμε; Δεν έχει μπίρες! Μόνο σου θα σε αφήσω στα πάρκα!
:-)))


zephyrous

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Μάλλον δεν ξέρεις ότι πίσω από κάθε αποτυχημένο άντρα κρύβεται κι ένα μπουκάλι μπύρας. :)


elena petelos

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Μάλλον δεν ξέρεις ότι πίσω από κάθε αποτυχημένο άντρα κρύβεται κι ένα μπουκάλι μπύρας. :)
Localisation: Pint :-ppp
:-)


dinomachi

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Χιούμορ κάνουμε; Δεν έχει μπίρες! Μόνο σου θα σε αφήσω στα πάρκα!
:-)))

Κάνουμε! Κάνουμε!
Όταν δεν πνιγόμαστε στη δουλειά... 4.15 τα ξημερώματα!

:-((((


elena petelos

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Κάνουμε! Κάνουμε!
Όταν δεν πνιγόμαστε στη δουλειά... 4.15 τα ξημερώματα!

:-((((
Για το μικρό έλεγα. Το οποίο πνίγεται σαφώς. Θέλει και να αναλύσει τον Καστοριάδη για το μεταπτυχιακό, και να πίνει μπίρες στα πάρκα, και να τρέχει στα φεστιβάλ, αλλά και να πάει στην Κίνα τον άλλο μήνα!
Για όνομα δηλαδή!
:-))


zephyrous

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Ξέχασες τη Θεσσαλονίκη... αύριο. :Ρ
Και δεν λέγεται πόσο μου άρεσε (ή μήπως να αρχίσω ήδη να λέω "με άρεσε";) εκείνο το "το οποίο". :)


elena petelos

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Ξέχασες τη Θεσσαλονίκη... αύριο. :Ρ
Και δεν λέγεται πόσο μου άρεσε (ή μήπως να αρχίσω ήδη να λέω "με άρεσε";) εκείνο το "το οποίο". :)
Πράγματι! Την ξέχασα! :-)
My humble apologies. Not. :-))
(Βάζε απόστροφο να είσαι χαλαρός!)
Kαληνύχτα και καλή δουλειά!


 

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