παρακράτος -> parakratos, para-state, parastate, state within a state, underground government, secret shadow government

spiros · 9 · 5398

spiros

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παρακράτος -> parakratos,  para-state, parastate, state within a state, underground government, secret shadow government

παρακράτος το [parakrátos] O46 : σύνολο παράνομων ατόμων, ομάδων και δραστηριοτήτων που αναπτύσσονται εκτός των θεσμών, παράλληλα προς το κράτος (συνήθ. με την ανοχή ή και τη στήριξή του) και δρουν ενάντια στην κοινωνία ή σε τμήματά της: Tο ~ αναπτύχθηκε και έδρασε στην Eλλάδα μετά τον Eμφύλιο. Tο ~ ευθύνεται για τη δολοφονία πολιτικών ηγετών. || (επέκτ.) κάθε παράνομη ενέργεια ή δράση, που εκπορεύεται και αναπτύσσεται από παράνομα και μη θεσμοθετημένα κέντρα εξουσίας.  [λόγ. παρα- 1 κράτος μτφρδ. αγγλ. parastate]
ΛΚΝ


parastate
(atomic physics) A state of a diatomic molecule in which the spins of the nuclei are antiparallel.
« Last Edit: 22 Nov, 2011, 20:08:26 by spiros »




spiros

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Not if you mean this:

A shadow government is a "government-in-waiting" that remains in waiting with the intention of taking control of a government in response to some event.
In parliamentary governments, the largest opposition party often refers to itself as a shadow government in which top leaders of the opposition are prepared to assume certain ministries should their party come to power in an election. For example, in Britain the largest opposition party's Defence spokesman might refer to themselves as the Shadow Defence Secretary. Smaller parties have spokespeople too, but these do not generally use shadow names.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow_government

But translated as such here:
http://books.google.gr/books?id=zzCZ3duPMbcC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=parakratos+Greece&source=bl&ots=kWuf2AowQq&sig=LJDsd0EqD5Tpzuym1t4Zr9cBUwM&hl=en&ei=jEa1SZn2EIKc-gaqzMzyAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result

See these too:


A shadow government, working in secret
In all seriousness, though, we might have a parallel bureaucracy and a parallel economy, but, at the start of the 21st century, at least Greece is no longer plagued by the parakratos, the parallel state in which security forces with their own agenda could terrorize the population and even carry out extrajudicial killings. All that's left now is their twin and polar opposite, the November 17 terrorist gang, which has anointed itself judge, jury and executioner in the same way the right-wing lunatics of the past did. A shadow, brutal judiciary.
http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_columns_1_02/03/2002_13969

Covert forces have been steadily rising in influence, operating behind the scenes within the global administration of the Corporate State structure of the Empire, becoming increasingly more and more its illegal arm, its shadow government, and its unofficial executive arm.

We have a word in the hellenic language for it: "parakratos". It refers to the organized force that wields state-like power and applies it in ways, procedures, methods and initiatives that lie outside the context of democratic institutions.

In the turkish language it is called "derin devlet": the deep state. The concept, as used in modern Turkey, includes covert elements of the State engaged in illegal operations alongside organized crime units, hate-based political organizations, private interests and unofficial corporate interests, all acting on their own agenda.

In the US this force is loosely identified as the "secret shadow government".
http://lists.indymedia.org/pipermail/imc-eastern-mediterranean/2008-November/1111-bx.html

The Deep state (Turkish: derin devlet) is said to be a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services (domestic and foreign), Turkish military, security, judiciary, and mafia. The notion of deep state is similar to that of a "state within the state". For those who believe in its existence, the political agenda of the deep state involves an allegiance to nationalism, corporatism, and state interests.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_state

State within a state
is a political situation in a country when an internal organ, generally from the armed forces, intelligence agencies or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_within_the_state

When left-wing deputy Grigoris Lambrakis (1912-1963) was assassinated in Thessaloniki in May 1963, Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis (1907-1998) asked: “But who is ruling this country?” Anyone could have answered him, had they dared. The answer would have been the parakratos, a word that evokes the political reality of Greece generated by the 1952 constitution. It is as difficult to translate as it is difficult to explain the twilight zone between democracy and dictatorship that Greece experienced for most of the 1950s and 1960s.

The parakratos was a repressive political mechanism sanctioned by anticommunist emergency measures and administered by the military, with the collaboration of the police and the tacit agreement of the government. The thugs that bludgeoned Lambrakis to death were parakratikoi, on the payroll of this unofficial mechanism and under the orders of military officers answerable only to their commander-in-chief, King Paul (1901-1964).
http://www.greekworks.com/content/index.php/weblog/extended/law_and_disorder_1952_and_other_unconstitutional_conventions/

The term parastate or parastatist [parakratos/ parakratikos] refer to mechanisms officially outside state power, but in fact controlled if not by the government then by the army, the police or the secret services. The term was extensively used for the first time during the 1960s, when 'patriotic groups' were used by the police to break up radical meetings and gatherings. The apex of parastate action in the 1960s was the assassination of Grigorios Lambrakis, a left wing MP, in Thessaloniki (Gavras film Z is about this murder). The activity of such groups became redundant during the 7 years junta, when the state had a free hand to exercise all the violence it wanted. After the collapse of the colonels in 1974, it is believed that large parts of the junta mechanism remained in a behind-lines mode, with some of them operating as hit-squads in times the interests of the so called junta-droplets were jeopardized either by parliamentary democracy or by the labour movement and other revolutionary forces. During the 1970s there was a long list of bomb attacks by such groups, leading to several trials of their perpetrators, amongst whom figured prominently a certain Mihaloliakos, now leader of the neonazi group Xrysi Avgi (Golden Dawn). Analysts at the time argued these parastate groups received direct orders by the imprisoned leader of the junta, Papadopoulos, who after the victory of PASOK (Socdem) in 1981 ordered the formation of a united nationalist party (EPEN). Today mainstream analysts attack the idea that fascist and neonazi groups are in fact parastate mechanisms, although the left and anarchists more or less unanimously beleive them them t be so. Elefterotypia, the daily newspaper, has published official papers figuring salaries payed by the EYP (secret services) to Mihaloliakos and other fascists.
http://no-racism.net/article/2836/

They formed in effect a paramilitary state within a state (the parakratos) which under the ensuing post-war governments was in place to exercise
http://books.google.gr/books?id=ZCSzc6em25gC&pg=PA228&lpg=PA228&dq=parakratos+Greece&source=bl&ots=O_ebCwGnUn&sig=V_NlWOwI3VHNqVkNc33mf32uI44&hl=en&ei=4ke1SaubI4Ov-Ab43uHuAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result

« Last Edit: 10 Mar, 2009, 02:19:03 by spiros »


mavrodon

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Το shadow government δεν ταιριάζει, όπως το διευκρίνισες. Το parakratos δε νομίζω να υπάρχει στα αγγλικά ως όρος. Όταν μιλάμε για underground  government εννοούμε κάτι  που έχει σχέση με το κράτος αλλά δεν υπάγεται στον κρατικό  προϋπολογισμό (βλ. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r52w987h77325k27/) . Ως τέτοιος οργανισμός λ.χ. χαρακτηρίζεται η FEMA στις Η.Π.Α. (βλ. http://www.theforbiddenknowledge.com/hardtruth/fema_underground.htm) . Το paramilitary state within a state σημαίνει παραστρατιωτικοί, δηλ. άτακτοι στρατιώτες, όπως ήταν οι τσέτες που κατάσφαξαν, μαζί με τους Κούρδους, τους πρόσφυγες στη μικρασιατική καταστροφή. Ίσως θα ταίριαζε κάπως το para-state αλλά σε αυτήν την περίπτωση πρόκειται για αντίπαλα προς την κυβέρνηση σώματα (βλ. http://www.answers.com/topic/terrorist-and-para-state-organizations). Τελικά, ίσως ταιριάζει "state within the state" χωρίς το paramilitary. Οι παρακρατικοί που δολοφόνησαν τον Λαμπράκη δεν ήταν παραστρατιωτικοί αλλά χαφιέδες της ασφάλειας.
« Last Edit: 09 Mar, 2009, 20:51:16 by mavrodon »






spiros

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state within the state

State within a state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ, generally from the armed forces, intelligence agencies or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_within_the_state


mavrodon

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State within a state is a political situation in a country when an internal organ, generally from the armed forces, intelligence agencies or police, does not respond to the civilian leadership.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_within_the_state
Αυτό που λέμε "κράτος εν κράτει".
« Last Edit: 10 Mar, 2009, 10:48:11 by wings »


 

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