felicity conditions -> συνθήκες επιτυχίας

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"felicity conditions" -> "συνθήκες επιτυχίας"

Αγγλοελληνικό Γλωσσάρι Γλωσσολογίας - Γ.Ι. Ξυδόπουλος

Αναγκαίος όρος για την κατανόηση ενός εκφωνήματος είναι να αναγνωρίσει ο ακροατής την προσλεκτική ισχύ/δύναμη του βάσει των συνθηκών επιτυχίας [felicity conditions] που αυτή προϋποθέτει. Π.χ. προϋπόθεση για την επιτυχή επιτέλεση της γλωσσικής πράξης της βάπτισης (Βαπτίζεται η δούλη του Θεού Θεοδώρα) είναι το παιδί να μην έχει ήδη όνομα, ο ομιλητής να είναι ιερέας και η διαδικασία που ακολουθείται να είναι η προβλεπόμενη στον κατάλληλο χώρο κλπ. Για την επιτυχή επιτέλεση της διαταγής Πάρε τα ψώνια από το αυτοκίνητο πρέπει η ομιλήτρια να επιθυμεί την εκτέλεση της εντολής, ο ακροατής να έχει τη δυνατότητα να την εκτελέσει (π.χ. να μην είναι διετές νήπιο ή ολικά ανάπηρος άνθρωπος) και, βεβαίως, να υπάρχουν ψώνια και αυτοκίνητο, διαφορετικά η εντολή δεν μπορεί να εκτελεστεί. Για την επιτέλεση μερικών προσλεκτικών πράξεων απαραίτητη είναι η προσλεκτική υιοθέτησή τους [illocutionary uptake] από τον ακροατή. Π.χ. όταν η ομιλήτρια στοιχηματίζει λέγοντας Πάω στοίχημα 10 ευρώ ότι πάλι θα αναβάλεις τον οδοντίατρο, το στοίχημα δεν ισχύει αν ο ακροατής δεν απαντήσει Εντάξει ή Το πάω ή Μέσα.

In some cases we can make something the case by saying that it is. Alas, I cannot lose ten pounds by saying that I am doing so, nor can I persuade you of a proposition by saying that I am doing so. On the other hand I can promise to meet you tomorrow by uttering the words, “I promise to meet you tomorrow,” and if I have the authority to do so, I can even appoint you to an office by saying, “I hereby appoint you.” (I can also appoint you without making the force of my act explicit: I might just say, “You are now Treasurer of the Corporation.” Here I appoint you without saying that I am doing so.) Only an appropriate authority, speaking at the appropriate time and place, can: christen a ship, pronounce a couple married, appoint someone to an administrative post, declare the proceedings open, or rescind an offer. Austin, in How To Do Things With Words, details the conditions that must be met for a given speech act to be performed felicitously.

Failures of felicity fall into two classes: misfires and abuses. The former are cases in which the putative speech act fails to be performed at all. If I utter, before the QEII, “I declare this ship the Noam Chomsky,” I have not succeeded in naming anything simply because I lack the authority to do so. My act thus misfires in that I've performed an act of speech but no speech act. Other attempts at speech acts might misfire because their addressee fails to respond with an appropriate uptake: I cannot bet you $100 on who will win the election unless you accept that bet. If you do not accept that bet, then I have tried to bet but have not succeeded in betting. As we will see in Section 9, a systematic unwillingness on the part of a speaker's interlocutors to respond with the requisite uptake may compromise that speaker's freedom of speech.

Some speech acts can be performed–that is, not misfire—while still being less than felicitous. I promise to meet you for lunch tomorrow, but haven't the least intention of making good. Here I have promised all right, but the act is not felicitous because it is not sincere. My act is, more precisely, an abuse because although it is a speech act, it fails to live up to a standard appropriate for speech acts of its kind. Sincerity is a paradigm condition for the felicity of speech acts. Austin foresaw a program of research in which thousands of types of speech act would be studied in detail, with felicity conditions elucidated for each one.



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